A developmental disability is a severe, chronic disability that is manifested before age 22 and is likely to continue indefinitely. Listed here are some common types of developmental disabilities and organizations where additional information on each one may be obtained.
Autism is a bio-neurological developmental disability that generally appears before the age of 3. Autism impacts the normal development of the brain in the areas of social interaction, communication skills, and cognitive function. Individuals with autism typically have difficulties in verbal and non-verbal communication, social interactions, and leisure or play activities.
Cerebral Palsy is a “ term used to describe a chronic condition affecting body and/or limb movement and the control of muscle tone and coordination. It is caused by damage to one or more specific areas of the brain during periods of brain development; there is usually no damage to the sensory or motor nerves controlling the muscles. The brain damage is not progressive; however, the characteristics of disabilities resulting from brain damage often change over time.
Down Syndrome (trisomy 21) is a chromosomal disorder caused by the presence of an extra 21st chromosome. It is characterized by a combination of major and minor differences in structure. It is often associated with some impairment of cognitive ability and physical growth, as well as facial appearance.
Epilepsy is a brain disorder that causes people to have recurring seizures.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a pattern of mental and physical defects which develops in some unborn babies when the mother drinks alcohol during pregnancy.
Fragile X Syndrome
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), the most common cause of inherited mental impairment. This impairment can range from learning disabilities to more severe cognitive or intellectual disabilities. FXS is the most common known cause of autism or "autistic-like" behaviors. Symptoms also can include characteristic physical and behavioral features and delays in speech and language development.
Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. "The term intellectual disability covers the same population of individuals who were diagnosed previously with mental retardation in number, kind, level, type, and duration of the disability and the need of people with this disability for individualized services and supports. Furthermore, every individual who is or was eligible for a diagnosis of mental retardation is eligible for a diagnosis of intellectual disability.” (Source: American Association of Intellectual & DD)
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is the most common known genetic cause of life-threatening obesity in children. PWS is an uncommon genetic disorder. It causes poor muscle tone, low levels of sex hormones and a constant feeling of hunger. The part of the brain that controls feelings of fullness or hunger does not work properly in people with PWS. They overeat, leading to obesity. Babies with PWS are usually floppy, with poor muscle tone, and have trouble sucking. Later, other signs appear. These include: Short stature, Poor motor skills, Weight gain, Underdeveloped sex organs, Mild mental retardation and learning disabilities.
FOR MORE INFORMATION LEAVE ME A COMMENT OR SEND ME AN EMAIL
NYS Office of People with Developmental Disabilities http://www.opwdd.ny.gov/