The Stages of Development Relating to Neurological Disorders
(Focus on Types of Seizures and Causes)
Angela Booker [PSY350 Physiological Psychology]
According to a National Journal Publication (JSTOR), “Studies of stress mediators in mothers of chronically ill/handicapped children have shown that use of family, and community resources and ability toward feeling secure in marriage relationships and the use of social support and networks are an advantageous measure to a more positive outcome leading to a hopeful stress free environment” (McCubbin, Marilyn, A. (Apr., 1988). In other words, there may be indicators that would reflect upon an individual who develop a neurological disorder because of stressful situations that can later impede his or her growth and substantial maturity. Nonetheless, a neurological disorder is a stigma that interrupts the nervous system, and can cause such disorders as a seizure to ones’ brain and hinder the mental capacities of the neurons that synthesizes the brain and the nervous system activity.
Also the dysfunction of gross motor abilities can become affected, along with excruciating tendencies of one’s sense of perception, and overall physical or social developmental outlook on life. In the text, it was expressed by the author, Neil Carlson, for instance that “a seizure disorder has a list of causes, and is the second category of importance which leads to one who may experience in sometime or another, a neurological disorder, and thereafter, be affected by a stroke” (p. 413). It is also suggested that a seizure may be brought on also by other such physical reasons. Consequently, there are specific types of seizures that are in a general sense, a mobilized reaction of neurons that are triggered by ‘excitatory’ experiences (aura) regarding what is called, a type of seizure focus. In fact, there are categorical modes of a seizure that are viewed from different perspectives.
On the other hand, there could be other causes related to seizures changes in ones’ consciousness, which lead to more complex partial seizures. Another cause of seizures that may have developed from brain tumors being that of an uncontrolled growth that tends to incur in types of cells. However, there are diagnostic test that are very effective for evaluating a patient who has shown signs of symptoms of seizures. One of the ways that one can determine if he or she is having problems with neurological disorders is by evaluating the patients’ medical history and also a family member who may have epilepsy. Respectively, there are some specific questions that a patient will be asked to help give the doctor more information to examine for results, such as, the age in which an expected seizure began, things that incurred during the seizure, some of the symptoms recognized at the time of the seizure, the physical state the patient was in at the time of the seizure, time the seizure took place, the patient may also be asked about other occurrences of known seizures, the effectiveness of the treatment, and if any types of medications were taken prior to the patient having seizures.
For example, the partial seizure is known as a type of focus that starts with an irritated reaction, which causes a person to have abnormality to one of their blood vessels. Another form of seizure type is considered generalized seizures evolving around the overall parts of a person’s brain. To name a few more, the simple partial seizure which can affect the consciousness of an individual’s thought, yet a person will not lose their conscious. On the contrary, the type of complex partial seizures can lead to one losing his or her conscious though. And lastly, what is said to be the most tonic –clonic seizure (grand mal seizure), and this being the tonic phase of the seizure is often concurred when moods or emotional behaviors are being exhibited.
An example of the clonic phase is the inability of one’s activity in his or her muscles, in which there is an occurrence in the muscle where trembling is a first sign followed by jerking, whereas the eyes of the person indulged in the seizure tend to roll, and he or she may be inclined to bite their tongue. Again, there are various wide spread causes of seizures that can be linked anywhere from a major cause called ‘scarring’, and this cause could have been evolving around an injury, and least, one who experienced a stroke as simulating a developmental dismantle to a person’s brain or tumor that had been growing for some time. In a shared resource (Wikipedia), which is used for referencing the contributed factor of seizures, it is noted that about 50 million people are affected by epilepsy nationally, and is more susceptible in children.
Moreover, a child is most likely to be seen having a seizure disorder that can be counteracted by periods of inattention in which their conscious become vague, and this type of seizure is called absence. More so, children are prone to the disorder than adults. Though epilepsy (seizure) can be controlled, there are hopefully better results by having surgical infractions performed. Nonetheless, treating one with medicine is an option, but may not be that effective because medicines are not a known cure for seizures. Altogether, it is determined that all seizures may not be for a long period, but could be somewhat a reflection of one’s childhood encounters relating to his or her past. Significantly, a reliable research study show, relating an abstract writing from ‘EBSCO host’ that “another form of disease that could be the cause of person affected by seizures is a patient who is diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS), and being the fist symptom observed” (Catenoix, H. H., Marignier, R. R., et al., 2011). Consequently, there are certain types of drugs and health problems that lead to infections that can very well be associated with a high fever and as a result the development of a seizure disorder.
Most importantly, a very effective form of test that measures the activity in the brain, and also the body movement is the EEG. It is suggested that for better results that the EEG electroencephalogram that is a form of prolonged examination be administered. When a patient elect to having this type of test performed, the best results should follow. Nonetheless, seizures can affect the overall abilities of one’s everyday activities. And, the known death rate of people in general is at a very high rate. In an article from the ‘EBSCO-host’, information shared concerning a person who has seizures for a long period of time acclaims that “Individuals with epilepsy are at higher risk of death than those from the general population, and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the most important direct epilepsy-related cause of death” (Terra, V. C., Scorza, F. A., Cavalheiro., et al., 2010). In this same study, it is believed that surgery performed in epilepsy in a child or adult can be a substantial form of another medical treatment used to reduce what is said to be ‘morality and SUDEP’ risks.
On the Contrast, epilepsy is a very distracting illness that depicts the outcome of family disturbances, whereas, the uncontrolled seizure episodes from those who incur damage to their brain changes the outlook on his or her entire life. Unlike adults, children have a hard time finding a comfortable way to manage seizures, and become dependent upon their caretaker or parents to help with finding the appropriate treatments and suitable care. Nonetheless, epilepsy is a known factor of decapitating illness, and is documented in a journal (JSTOR) that the “medical condition is conduit a patients’ sense of controlling what is the concept of both children and their parents individual control in which the family unit is a process relating to the child’s autonomy and competence” (Ziegler, Robert G., July, 1982). Other health conditions may arise during the process of management of children and adults who exemplify a need for strenuous care because of having to deal with the isolated effects of seizures.
For example, a stressful circumstance within the family structure and environment poses problems for both the parent and child or whoever is experiencing the disorder. Overall, most times the pre-existing conditions of seizures will make it somewhat difficult to cope with living out the quality of life that individuals with any type of illness wish to live. In other words, as an author in the journal (JSTOR) show how family relations reflect the importance of knowing that “seizures can become a child’s competence instead of the thought of having limits to the disease itself” (Ziegler, Robert G. Family Relations).Though many families are different in the aspect of how they respond to family members with epilepsy, there are other options of treatment shared by each individual family. In Contrast, seizure disorders can also be treated with a drug called anticonvulsant, in which is conducive to the inhibitors reaction to synapses, and can duly benefit a patient’s attempt to live out a good life.
Carlson, N. (2011). Foundations of behavioral neuroscience (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
McCubbin, Marilyn, A. (Apr., 1988): Family RelationsFamily Stress, Resources, and Family Types: Chronic Illness in Children Vol. 37, No. 2 (Apr., 1988), pp. 203-210
Catenoix, H. H., Marignier, R. R., Ritleng, C. C., Dufour, M. M., Mauguière, F. F., Confavreux, C. C., & Vukusic, S. S. (2011). Multiple sclerosis and epileptic seizures. Multiple Sclerosis (13524585), 17(1), 96-102. doi: 10.1177/1352458510382246
Terra, V. C., Scorza, F. A., Cavalheiro, E. A., Wichert-Ana, L., Pinto, K. D., Machado, H. R., & Sakamoto, A. C. (2010). Pediatric epilepsy surgery and sudden unexpected death epilepsy: the contribution of a Brazilian epilepsy surgery program. Child's Nervous System, 26(8), 1075-1079. doi:10.1007/s00381-010-1108-z
Contributor of Source: Angela Booker, BA Psychology
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