Justin Sullivan, Getty Images and the Examiner provided many key images from the Apple live event of Tuesday, Sept. 10, 2013. The event covered, of course, the new iPhone 5S and the new iPhone 5C. The 5C shares some of the new elements of the 5S but not all. Both appear to be "doing better" technologically than the iPhone 4S. The event and the photos provided lay out the essential elements of the iPhone 5S.
Third - Touch ID is ready when it has scanned your fingerprint (and trusted individuals you know) and ready to unlock your iPhone (5S). You may even make purchases from Apple stores through this feature and do so securely. The video (linked previously) allays the fear that one's fingerprint ID is left "laying around in servers or the cloud". Your FP ID (fingerprint ID) should be secure if you leave your device secure.
Fourth - the 5S's FP sensor is able to process your fingerprint ID based on 3 basic patterns in a matter of moments. The elapsed time of this feat seems remarkable.
Fifth - Mr. Schiller then presented an "exploded view" of the 5S Touch ID button construction. At bottom lays a tactile switch connected to the inner electronics, then a capacitive touch sensor, then the "stainless steel ring" and a sapphire crystal on top. One would guess the crystal is synthetic and the ring makes a tiny electrical circuit (or loop) that activates this device-in-miniature.
Sixth - He then presented the iSight camera and lens of the new iPhone 5S. It and its sensors are designed so as to pick up more light and deliver it into finished images and videos. Before-and-after demonstrations of improved flesh tones seemed very impressive. The "burst mode" of this new camera will process and display those images that may be best suited to you. It is all designed to act without you hardly noticing - if at all.
There is much more to the iPhone 5S but those seem to be some of the essential elements that can be listed here.