Sonia Leticia Solis, 54, was a resident of Brownsville in 2012 when she allegedly voted five times with absentee ballots in the Cameron County primary election.
Solis is accused of using the names of five different people.
"The indictment, returned under seal Aug., was unsealed today following her arrest by federal authorities in Fort Worth," the FBI said.
She was scheduled to be arraigned in Fort Worth and eventually be ordered to Brownsville for trial.
"If convicted, Solis faces a possible federal prison sentence of up to five years and could be ordered to pay a maximum $10,000 fine," the FBI said.
The FBI was in charge of the investigation.
"An indictment is a formal accusation of criminal conduct, not evidence," the FBI added. "A defendant is presumed innocent unless convicted through due process of law."