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What vegan foods can substitute for eggs or oils and fats when baking?

Instead of eggs, here are some good substitutes. Pick one to substitute for one egg. Your goal is to get the substitute to hold the flour, veggie burger, pancake, fritter, or baked product together as good as eggs do. If you use flour not from grains such as garbanzo bean flour or oat bran instead of finely ground flour, you can mix the ground flax seeds (meal) to absorb the liquid and hold together.

What vegan foods can substitute for eggs or oils and fats when baking?
What vegan foods can substitute for eggs or oils and fats when baking?
Photo by Scott Barbour/Getty Images

Here are some substitutes for an egg in baking or frying:

1/4 of a 16 ounce 'tub' of silken tofu

1/4 cup vegan yogurt

1/ 2 mashed banana

1/3 cup applesauce

1 tablespoon of flax seed meal (ground flaxseeds) and 3 tablespoons of water.

1/4 cup mashed cooked black beans

Another trick is to whisk until fluffy flax seed meal and water and use it as an egg. When flax seeds or flax seed meal is left in water or other liquid, it becomes gooey, like an egg and has a similar texture when baking as you mix it with dry ingredients.

To substitute for fats, use 1/4 cup mashed prunes to substitute for 1/4 cup of oil or butter in baking.

Here's how to bake cookies with pureed pumpkin and/or sesame seed tahini as a substitute for milk or other liquids in any type of cookie, cake, or brownie baking. As an alternative to milk products, use sesame seed tahini, a puree of sesame seeds ground either in your blender with some water, or buy it from a health food store, whole foods grocery, or supermarket. Learn how to modify recipes.

Tofu (liquefied in a blender) is a substitute for eggs. Lecithin granules and mashed prunes are substitutes for oils or fats in baking. Also another substitute for eggs is one tablespoon of flax seed meal instead of one egg.

A great-tasting brand, found in health food stores is Artisana raw, organic tahini. For vegan vegetarians, a substitute for eggs can be tofu or flax seed meal. For example, a tablespoon of flax seed meal can be used to thicken batter instead of one egg. Or a mixture of prunes and lecithin may substitute for fats and oils.

If you want a vegan cookie without eggs that still holds together well, substitute flax meal (ground, milled flaxseed), powdered soy lecithin, soft silken tofu, GF soy yogurt, pureed fruit such as prunes mixed with two tablespoons of lecithin per cup, or Ener-G Foods “Egg Replacer.” Also see a copy of Carol Fenster’s book, Special Diet Solutions. It also provides guidelines for changing recipes to exclude eggs (and other common allergens).

It’s high in calcium and iron. Use it instead of milk in all your baking. Any brand of tahini also works. It’s a nondairy alternative that’s used instead of milk or liquids in baking. Also, it can be used as a topping or sauce for savory dishes such as fish or crab cakes when mixed with lemon juice or apple cider vinegar.

Want a cookie with no eggs, no sugar, no milk, and whole grain meal instead of flour, and lecithin granules instead of fat? Try my no-salt added and natural fruit sweetening cookie recipe.

Egg-free recipes

See, Egg-free cooking and baking, egg-free recipes - The Vegan Society. Also check out, Egg free 5 Ingredients Or Less and Egg substitutes - Egg Replacer - Baking Substitute - Egg Allergies. Instead of eggs and fat or oils, in cookies and cakes, substitute 1/2 package of tofu (or about a half cup) blended with water or any other liquid, such as fruit juice or a banana. Also use oat bran, flax seed meal, and oatmeal instead of white wheat flour. You can substitute ingredients in recipes that allow no eggs, no baking powder, no soda, or no dairy products.

Liquefy in your blender. Instead of fats or oils, substitute ¼ cup to ½ cup of mashed or pureed prunes, either soaked or cooked and two to three tablespoons of lecithin granules. Tofu, when liquefied with water or juice takes the place of eggs. Lecithin granules and prunes takes the place of oils and fats, and at the same time sweetens cookies and cakes with a tart, yet sweet dried fruit flavor. And it's rich in potassium.

A dessert recipe

1 scoop rice bran powder (about 2 tablespoons)

2/3 cup sesame tahini paste

1/2 tub tofu made with calcium sulfate instead of magnesium chloride (about a half-pound) substitutes for eggs.

Also one tablespoon of flax seed meal substitutes for one egg if you don't want to use tofu. Or if you're not vegan use three egg whites, beaten until in stiff peaks like meringue 1/4 cup to 1/2 cup of apple juice concentrate.

1 banana
1 cup chopped walnuts
½ cup almonds
½ cup frozen blueberries
½ cup frozen strawberries
1 cup oat bran
1 cup oat meal—old fashioned rolled oats uncooked
½ -2/3 cup flax seed meal
3 tablespoon of lecithin granules
½ soaked, pureed, cooked, or mashed prunes

Place in a bowl the oat bran, protein powder, lecithin, and flax seed meal, stir, then finally the oat meal, then add all the fruit and nut ingredients. In a blender blend the apple juice concentrate and tofu. Add sesame seed paste. Pour into the large glass bowl.

Stir everything. Pour all ingredients into the bowl and mix with a large spoon. If you need more sweetness, consider fruit, but please go lightly here. You don’t want sugar to raise those insulin levels. The fruit juice concentrate and the banana sweeten it.

Use pieces of fresh dates, chopped apples, or figs to sweeten more, if you require a sweeter taste. You can serve the cookies smeared with with almond butter, peanut butter, or other high protein or nut butter topping if you wish.

The addition of the Omega-3 oils in the form of flax seed meal, is helpful, and at least helped me. This is a nutritious nut and fruit cookie that can supplement a meal on the run.

Brush two or three of your cookie sheets with the extra virgin olive oil. I use glass cookie sheets. Bake in a 350 degree F. oven for 40 minutes or from 30 to 45 minutes, until the undersides of the cookies are a light brown.

Use a metal spatula to lift the warm cookies and place into a cake dish or other glass bowl. Cover and let cool. The world’s most nutritious cookie is served warm. It’s delicious. The key ingredient is the rice protein powder and the absence of granulated white sugar, fruit juice concentrate, or dairy fat.

Garbanzo bean flour, Flax Seed, Oat Bran, Rice Bran, and Almond Meal Cookies

Bake a more nutritious treat cookie using garbanzo bean flour, flax seed meal, raw oat meal, or oat bran, rice bran, and almond meal. Instead of oils, use 2 tablespoons of lecithin and two handfuls of chopped, uncooked prunes.

If you're vegan, substitute for eggs 1/2 cup of tofu blended with an equal amount of water to form a thick paste. If you want to substitute the oil for another type of 'fat', try two or three tablespoons of lecithin granules mixed with pureed prunes. It takes the place of 'fat' or 'oils' in a cookie.

Serve cookies made of whole grains and legumes and sweetened only with chopped dried fruit, ground nuts, and if you really need more sweetness, a tablespoon of apple juice concentrate or a 1/4 cup of mashed, ripe banana. The healthier recipes are great for children to bake with parents or students with teachers by learning how to make substitutions of ingredients.

For example, prunes and lecithin may be substituted for fats. Or tofu pureed with pumpkin may be substituted for eggs for vegan vegetarians. Children can mix the ingredients to taste by adjusting the pureed dried fruit or pumpkin, or add organic agave nectar to sweeten the batter, or turn pumpkin brownies browner by adding two tablespoons of carob powder to the batter.

Friends can be invited to parties to try out recipes for healthier snacks such as cookies or brownies made with flax seed meal and almond meal or oat bran, oat meal, rice bran, dried fruit, pumpkin puree, agave nectar, and carob powder instead of flour and sugar. They can learn the secret of some chefs: how to substitute pureed prunes and a tablespoon or two of lecithin granules for butter, oils, or fats in making cookies, cakes, or brownies. Or substitute pureed tofu in a blender with a little pumpkin and/ or other liquid instead of using eggs to hold cookie dough together.

Another idea, instead of white flour, use garbanzo bean flour. The slightly nutty taste is one way of adding legumes to a cookie, brownie, or cake. Or go flourless by using meal or bran in a cookie or brownie instead of flour. You even can add sprouted grains and legumes to your meal or bran. Or mix garbanzo bean flour with flax meal and almond meal to make a cookie dough. Here's the cookie or brownie recipe using meal, bran, garbanzo bean flour, nuts, and seeds.

Cookie or Brownie Recipe

Mix these ingredients together
• 1 half cup of flax seed meal
• 1 half cup oat bran
• 1 half cup raw oat meal
• 1 half cup rice bran
• 1 half cup garbanzo bean flour (such as Bob's Red Mill available at many health food stores
• 1 half cup of almond meal (optional). Make your own by putting raw almonds in a masticating blender using the crush screen or blend with a small about of water in a regular blender and drain out the water. Or buy almond meal in most health stores. It comes a package of almond meal. It's cheaper to make your own almond meal. Just buy raw, unsalted almonds. Put the nuts in a blender with some water. Roughly grind. Pour out water and drain. Or grind the almonds in a coffee grinder.
2 egg whites or 2 whole eggs
• 1/4 cup of pureed prunes
• 3 tablespoons of lecithin granules
• 1/2 cup chopped prunes or other dried fruit
• 1/2 cup safflower seeds, cashews, or raw unsalted nuts of your choice.
• 1/4 cup of raisins or chopped pitted dates.
• 1/4 cup chopped dried nectarines or apricots (or any other dried fruit)
• Use pureed or canned pumpkin to substitute for liquid, about a cup or small can of pumpkin to wet the meal until it forms a crumbly paste to shape into cookies. If too wet, add more meal to form a dough you can shape with your hands.
• Cookie sheet oiled with 1 tablespoon or more of olive or grape seed oil just to coat cookie sheets. Or spray the cookie sheet with your healthiest non-stick coating for cookie sheets. Instead of oil, you can line the cookie sheet with sesame seeds. Or bake on parchment paper. Choice is yours. A little grape seed oil is fine on the cookie sheet.
• One handful of sesame seeds
• One handful of shelled raw unsalted sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds go in the batter. Sesame seeds are sprinkled on top of each cookie just before baking.Optional: sweeten more if needed to taste with either some mashed ripe banana or a tablespoon of apple juice concentrate. Add 1/4 cup of olive oil or grape seed oil(optional) to the meal and also the two whole eggs or just the two egg whites, depending on whether you eat whole eggs or just the whites (as they do in a spa breakfast).

Optional: If the dried fruit isn't making a sweet enough cookie for your taste, add a tablespoon of raw agave nectar to the batter. Vegans that don't use eggs can use lecithin and prunes to substitute for oil or fat in the cookie and ½ cup of tofu blended with ½ cup of water, liquefied to a thick paste consistency to substitute for the eggs.

Brownies

If you don't like to make cookie shapes, bake as brownies by pouring the batter over the entire cookie sheet and cutting the dough paste into squares or diamond shapes before baking. Use the cookie recipes. If you want brownies to be brown and taste somewhat like chocolate, but without the stimulants in chocolate, use two tablespoons of carob powder and two tablespoons of raw organic agave nectar to sweeten the cookie/brownie dough/paste.

You need either tofu or eggs to hold the cookie together as it bakes. Add water, almond milk, or fruit juice to make a paste. Bake at 350 degrees F. until cookies are light brown on the bottom and not wet on the top. Check the cookies after a half hour in the oven. The cookies should be chewy. Cool and serve.

Bran-Based Vegan Cookies

If you're looking for a no-flour, bran-based vegan cookie that is low-sodium and contains only natural fruit sweetening…bake my vookie. A vookie is a vegan cookie. Use oat bran, flax seed meal, and oatmeal instead of flour.

In one of the cookie recipes, there are no eggs, baking powder, bicarbonate of soda, or dairy products, no transfats or saturated fats, and no white flour or sugar. If you want to go totally vegan and don't use egg whites, substitute 1/2 cup of tofu puréed in a blender with enough water to make a thick paste.

This tofu paste substitutes for the eggs in letting the cookies hold together when baking. The cookie dough may be enriched with a scoop of protein powder as you mix the dry ingredients together before adding any liquid ingredients.

Add nuts of your choice or add two tablespoons of lecithin granules and two tablespoons of chopped or mashed cooked prunes instead of any fats or oils. Use extra virgin olive oil if you wish to add fat to your cookie. And sweeten with dried fruit and a little cherry juice because cherry juice helps to ease arthritis.

Instead of flour, you're using bran. Also alternate flours in case you want to mix the different types of bran with a more nutritious flour could be flour made from sprouted lentils or much easier to obtain in most health food stores, Bob's Red Mill garbanzo flour.

You can use only bran when making vookies (vegan cookies). But you can substitute flour or meal for any type of bran. Other flours could be oat flour, brown rice flour, or soy flour. What I like about using just bran is that the cookie has more fiber and people who don't want to consume white flour or sugar can substitute flax meal or oat bran for the nutrition and fiber value.

Protein-fortified vegan fiber cookie

1 scoop rice protein powder (about 2 tablespoons)

1 tub tofu made with calcium sulfate instead of magnesium

chloride (about a pound) or three egg whites, beaten until in stiff peaks like merengue

1/2 to 2/3 cup of pink grapefruit juice. Buy a freshly squeezed carton of juice or juice

your own grapefruit.

1 cup walnuts

1/2 cup almonds

1/4 cup extra virgin olive oil cold pressed and not rancid or old.

1/2 cup frozen blueberries

1/2 cup frozen strawberries

1 cup oat bran

1 cup oat meal--old fashioned rolled oats uncooked

1/2-2/3 cup flax seed meal

1 tablespoon of lecithin granules (optional)

Place in a bowl the oat bran, protein powder, lecithin, and flax seed meal, stir, then finally the oat meal, then all the fruit and nut ingredients. In a blender blend the grapefruit juice and tofu. Pour into the large glass bowl.

Stir everything. Pour all ingredients into the bowl and mix with a large spoon. If you need more sweetness, consider fruit, but please go lightly here. You don't want sugar to raise those insulin levels. I like it without sweetener. Use pieces of fresh dates, chopped apples, or figs to sweeten more, if you require a sweeter taste.

Serve cookies with almond butter, peanut butter, or other high protein or nut butter topping if you wish. The addition of the Omega-3 oils in the form of flax seed meal, is helpful, and at least helped me. This is a nutritious nut and fruit cookie that can supplement a meal on the run.

Coat 2 or 3 cookie sheets with the extra virgin olive oil. (I use glass cookie sheets). Bake in a 350 degree F. oven for 40 minutes or from 30 to 45 minutes, until the undersides of the cookies are a light brown.

Use a metal spatula to lift the warm cookies and place into a cake dish or other glass bowl. Cover and let cool. The world's most nutritious cookie is served warm. It's delicious.

The key ingredient is the rice protein powder and the absence of granulated white sugar, fruit juice concentrate, or dairy fat.

Raspberry/Carrot Cookie Recipe with Rice Bran, Oat, and Flax meal

Low-sodium and only natural fruit sweetening. No bleached flour ingredients. Use oat bran, flax seed meal, and oat meal instead of flour. No wheat. No baking powder, soda, salt, or dairy products.

Fruit and nuts sweeten the cookie. Lecithin granules and prunes substitute for any fats or oils. Or use extra virgin olive oil, macadamia nut oil, or sesame seed oil if you want to use oil in the cookie or to grease the cookie sheet.

2 scoops rice protein powder (about 2 tablespoons)

1 cup of unsweetened almond milk.

1/2 to 2/3 cup of frozen or fresh red raspberries blended with a cup of soy milk.

1 peeled banana

1 cup walnuts

1/2 cup almonds

1/4 cup extra virgin olive oil cold pressed and not rancid or old or use sesame seed oil or rice bran oil.

1/2 cup frozen blueberries

1/2 cup frozen strawberries

1/2 cup peeled baby carrots

1 cup oat bran

1 cup oat meal--old fashioned rolled oats uncooked

1/2-2/3 cup flax seed meal

1 tablespoon of lecithin granules

2 or 3 egg whites. Or if vegan substitute 1/2 tub tofu (blended to a creme) for eggs or 1/2 cup stewed prunes in their syrup and 2 tablespoons of lecithin granules if you don't eat egg whites.

In a blender blend the almond milk and fruit. Add the peeled baby carrots. Liquify. Taste it and it will taste like a rather tart soymilk product.

Pour into a large glass bowl. Add two or three egg whites to a bowl and add the soy milk and fruit blended to a thick smoothie consistency. Add to the bowl the oat bran, protein powder, lecithin, and flax seed meal, stir, then finally the oatmeal, then all the fruit and nut ingredients.

Mix in bowl. Or if you're a vegan, substitute 1/2 pound tub of tofu or 1/2 stewed prunes in their syrup and 2 tablespoons of lecithin granules for the egg whites that will hold the cookie paste together.

Stir everything. Pour all ingredients into the bowl and mix with a large spoon. If you need more sweetness, consider fruit, but please go lightly here. You don't want sugar to raise those insulin levels. I like it without sweetener.

You can serve with almond butter, peanut butter, or other high protein or nut butter topping if you wish. The addition of the Omega-3 oils in the form of flax seed meal, is helpful, and at least helped me. This is a nutritious nut and fruit cookie that can supplement a meal on the run.

Coat two or three cookie sheets with the olive oil. I use glass cookie sheets. Bake in a 350 degree F. oven for 40 minutes or from 30 to 45 minutes, until the undersides of the cookies are a light brown.

Use a metal spatula to lift the warm cookies and place into a cake dish or other glass bowl. Cover and let cool. The world's most nutritious cookie is served warm. It's delicious. The key ingredients are the rice bran and rice protein powder and the absence of granulated white sugar, fruit juice concentrate, or dairy fat.

Perhaps it's time to cut some of the fat and cholesterol in your baking by cutting out egg yolks and fats such as lard, butter, or oils. To cut out fats, substitute mashed cooked prunes instead of fats when recipes call for melted butter, lard, or other oils and fats. And instead of those high-cholesterol egg yolks, use the whites if you wish, but use flax seed meal instead of eggs.

Tofu also can be used in baking as a substitute for eggs. Here's a guide you can adjust to your recipe depending on how many servings you want to bake of your pie, cookies, cakes, or brownies.

One egg equals one tablespoon of flax seed meal.

1/4 cup of mashed prunes equals two tablespoons of fats.

One egg equals 1/4 cup of tofu liquified in a blender with a teaspoon of water.

Substitute for eggs 1/2 cup of tofu blended with an equal amount of water to form a thick paste. Or use one tablespoon of flax seed meal to substitute for one egg. To substitute prunes for fats, use 1/4 cup of mashed prunes to substitute for two tablespoons of fats such as lard, melted butter, or oils.

Some cooks mix 1 tablespoon of lecithin granules with 1/4 cup of mashed prunes to substitute for fats in baking. But even without the fatty lecithin granules, prunes alone will substitute for most fats in baking.

Too many commercial pie crusts are made with transfats

A lot of people are still using transfats such as partially hardened soybean or cottonseed oils to make pie crust. How many people use the hard-white-fat in a can of shortening to make a pie crust flaky to contrast with the creamy filling? Sure it tastes great. But transfats can do a job on your arteries.

Here are some of the substitutions you can make in baking. You don't need to put eggs into a cake, cookie, brownie or pie crust. Just substitute flax seed for the eggs. To make a sweet potato pie, you put into a blender two cooked or baked medium-sized sweet potatoes and one 15 ounce can of pureed pumpkin.

Then you add about 3 tablespoons of flax seed meal instead of the usual three eggs most people put in pumpkin or sweet potato pies. Then you add three peeled ripe bananas. You add a 16 ounce can of coconut milk or about one eight-ounce cup of carrot juice and one cup of almond milk. If the batter is too thin, add 2 tablespoons of coconut flour to thicken.

Now add your favorite spices such as 1/2 teaspoon of cinnamon and 1/4 teaspoon of cloves. Blend the entire mixture until pureed to a thick, creamy consistency. Have you heard of pureed prunes substituting for fats in baking and flax seed meal substituting for eggs in baking?

Some people eat pureed food when they have swallowing problems

See the site, Puréed Foods for Swallowing Problems. Others would like healthier substitutes in baking if you're interested in putting fewer fats or eggs into your baked goods. Some vegan diets specify no oils such as walnuts in a salad. See the articles, PCRM | A Vegan Diet How-To Guide for Diabetes, Fat in Vegan Diets: How Low Should You Go? | The Vegan RD, and No Oil Vegetarian Cooking.

Such a decision is individual based on how your body, genes, and metabolism responds to various oils and fats and is based on your medical evaluations in response to various foods. Sometimes it's a matter of tailoring your food to your body's signature, expression, and response.

Are you getting tired of pies full of eggs, grains, and table sugar or salt? Did you know that you can substitute for fats in baking by using pureed prunes? And instead of eggs, you can use a tablespoon of flax seed meal to substitute for each egg? See the sites, Prune fat substitute - CookingLight.com Community and Fat Substitutions. See, Vegan Diet Guy | No Added Oils Healthiest for Vegans and Omnivores Alike.

You're choosing either the coconut milk and the carrot juice or the carrot juice and the almond milk. Add the liquid a little at a time to make sure your batter is thick and creamy like a thick pea soup because it has to bake into a pie and thicken more. Pie batter can be thickened with oat bran or flax seed meal or coconut flour. It depends on your choice as some people can't eat any grains at all.

Use a sprinkling of oat bran or if you can tolerate fats, even almond meal which is fatty in itself, to keep a pie or cookie from sticking to your cookie pan or pie plate instead of oils or fats. Then pour a cup of almond meal as your crust into the pie plate. Pat the almond meal around the pie plate until it looks like a crust. Or sprinkle a cookie sheet with sesame seeds or even shelled sunflower seeds to prevent sticking to the cookie sheet, instead of greasing the cookie sheet or pie plate.

Grind your own almonds in a dry grinder or coffee grinder or use a Vita-Mix dry grinder. Or just buy a package of almond meal such as Bob's Red Mill almond meal/flour. See, Bob's Red Mill Almond Meal/Flour, 16-Ounce Packages.

You can buy almond meal at various supermarkets or buy it online. You also can grind your own flax seeds with a coffee grinder or dry grinder or buy it online as a package of flax seed meal. Almond meal and flax seed meal are sold in health food stores and in various food markets. You can buy these products also online. See, Flaxseed Meal - Bob's Red Mill. Or check out Bob's Red Mill Organic Golden Flaxseed Meal, 32-Ounce Packages.

When your pie plate is covered with almond meal, which will be your vegan crust, just pour the wet mixture made up of bananas, flax seed meal, peeled and cooked sweet potatoes, and a can of pumpkin puree spiced with cinnamon and cloves into your pie plate. Your flax seed meal in the batter is a substitute for eggs.

For example, one tablespoon of flax seed meal substitutes in baking for one egg. So you'd use 3 tablespoons of flax seed meal to substitute for 3 eggs in baking a pumpkin or sweet potato pie. This pie is a mixture of sweet potato and pumpkin.

Bake the pie at 350 degrees F. until it is solid to the touch. This can take about an hour or less, depending upon your oven. You want a solid pie, not watery. In the refrigerator the pie may become more solid as it cools. Serve chilled. Your thin crust will consist of the almond meal.