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What's behind that gut feeling of fear or hesitation?

We are all familiar with that uncomfortable feeling in our stomach when faced with a threatening situation. By studying rats, researchers at ETH Zurich have been able to prove for the first time that our ‘gut instinct’ has a significant impact on how we react to fear, says a new study, "Gut Vagal Afferents Differentially Modulate Innate Anxiety and Learned Fear," appearing online May 21, 2014 in the Journal of Neuroscience. The new study focuses on what's involved in gut feeling. The gut influences brain processes involved in emotions like fear.

What's behind that gut feeling of fear or hesitation?
Anne Hart, novel.

An unlit, deserted car park at night, footsteps in the gloom. The heart beats faster and the stomach ties itself in knots. We often feel threatening situations in our stomachs. While the brain has long been viewed as the center of all emotions, researchers are increasingly trying to get to the bottom of this proverbial gut instinct.

It's not only the brain that controls processes in our abdominal cavity; our stomach also sends signals back to the brain

At the heart of this dialogue between the brain and abdomen is the vagus nerve, which transmits signals in both directions – from the brain to our internal organs (via the so called efferent nerves) and from the stomach back to our brain (via the afferent nerves).

By cutting the afferent nerve fibers in rats, a team of scientists led by Urs Meyer, a researcher in the group of ETH Zurich professor Wolfgang Langhans, turned this two-way communication into a one-way street, enabling the researchers to get to the bottom of the role played by gut instinct. In the test animals, the brain was still able to control processes in the abdomen, but no longer received any signals from the other direction.

Less fear without gut instinct

In the behavioral studies, the researchers determined that the rats were less wary of open spaces and bright lights compared with controlled rats with an intact vagus nerve. “The innate response to fear appears to be influenced significantly by signals sent from the stomach to the brain,” says Meyer, according to the May 22, 2014 news release, "How the gut feeling shapes fear."

Nevertheless, the loss of their gut instinct did not make the rats completely fearless: the situation for learned fear behavior looked different. In a conditioning experiment, the rats learned to link a neutral acoustic stimulus – a sound – to an unpleasant experience. Here, the signal path between the stomach and brain appeared to play no role, with the test animals learning the association as well as the control animals.

If, however, the researchers switched from a negative to a neutral stimulus, the rats without gut instinct required significantly longer to associate the sound with the new, neutral situation. This also fits with the results of a recently published study conducted by other researchers, which found that stimulation of the vagus nerve facilitates relearning, says Meyer, according to the news release.

These findings are also of interest to the field of psychiatry, as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), for example, is linked to the association of neutral stimuli with fear triggered by extreme experiences. Stimulation of the vagus nerve could help people with PTSD to once more associate the triggering stimuli with neutral experiences. Vagus nerve stimulation is already used today to treat epilepsy and, in some cases, depression.

Stomach influences signaling in the brain

“A lower level of innate fear, but a longer retention of learned fear – this may sound contradictory,” says Meyer, according to the news release. However, innate and conditioned fear are two different behavioral domains in which different signaling systems in the brain are involved. On closer investigation of the rats’ brains, the researchers found that the loss of signals from the abdomen changes the production of certain signaling substances, so called neurotransmitters, in the brain.

“We were able to show for the first time that the selective interruption of the signal path from the stomach to the brain changed complex behavioral patterns. This has traditionally been attributed to the brain alone,” says Meyer, according to the news release. The study shows clearly that the stomach also has a say in how we respond to fear; however, what it says, i.e. precisely what it signals, is not yet clear.

The researchers hope, however, that they will be able to further clarify the role of the vagus nerve and the dialogue between brain and body in future studies. Authors of the new study are Klarer M, Arnold M, Günther L, Winter C, Langhans W, and Meyer U. The study "Gut Vagal Afferents Differentially Modulate Innate Anxiety and Learned Fear," appears online in the Journal of Neuroscience, May 21, 2014. Noteworthy is the practice of "belly breathing" or breathing slowly from your diaphragm which is supposed to strengthen the calming ability of the vagus nerve. Also it has been said that An irritated vagus nerve caused by stomach bloating can result in heart palpitations. See, "Are Your Heart Palpitations, Your Vagus Nerve and Your Stomach Bloating Connected?" Or you may wish to check out, "How to Deal With Anxiety Using Your Vagus Nerve."

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