The Caspian Sea border states of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia, Iran, and Turkmenistan
all support each others right to peaceful nuclear power programs. Data has been compiled and disseminated from the Center for Strategic and International Studies, and Congressional Research Service to ALU scholars to write a metanalysis with suggestions for legal studies. Under a joint quote, "the parties confirm the inalienable right of all state-signatories to the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons to develop research and the production and utilization of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes without discrimination and within the framework of the provisions spelled out in this treaty as well as those of the International Atomic Energy mechanism". The United States and Iran look at Turkmenistan as a country where they can expand their strategic interests, with each looking into the country's rich hydrocarbon reserves. Iran is leading the US with it's bilateral energy relationship with Turkmenistan. Both country's share pipelines and in agreement to jointly exploit Turkmenistan's Yolotan gas field, and Iran's Gonbadli gas field. Tensions still exists such as suspensions of shipments and price disputes. Classified as an alternate investor, US relations have been reestablished in Ashgabat. Building upon a weak relationship, the US has to deal with Russian, Chinese, and Iranian impact within the country. The Bush Administration focused on military and strategic cooperation with Kyrgystan, Uzbekistan, with Turkmenistan declining participation in the Northern Distribution Network, and refusing to permit US supply routes to pass through their territory (because of their official policy of neutrality). Turkmenistan periodically allows over flights to support the US War effort in Afghanistan, and made high profile purchases of military equipment from the US. Commercial relationships have evolved with Turkey, Russia, China, and Iran. With the US phasing out the War in Afghanistan, it will cause it's strategic interest in Turkmenistan to decline. Under consideration is it's decision whether to renegotiate with Turkmenistan given it's human rights record, and single party system of government (lack of democracy standards). The country has not been isolated, nor served as encouragement to positive change since the US's lack of engagement. Suggestions would be to, 1) Increase it's relations with Ashgabat, 2) have the United Nations look into the human rights issue, 3) work on US-Turkmen energy relations, 4) look into change in the regime from all aspects. ALU scholars would like to see a G-5+3 Summit sponsored by Turkmenistan for Azerbaijan, Russia, Iran, Kazakhstan, and the US, Turkey, and China with the United Nations mediating for issues on, 1) Caspian Sea dispute, 2) human rights, 3) nuclear technology,4) Yolotan and Gonadli gas field resolution, and 5) other issues of importance.
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