The Marshall Plan initiated the US-Turkish military alliance in 1947. 1952 saw Turkey being a member of NATO. Soviet influence was checked by Turkey's strategic location in Southeastern Europe, the Middle East, and the Eastern Mediterranean. $7.7 billion in grants, and $3.9 billions in loans were given to the US to Turkey during the Cold War. The funds were distributed between 1948-1975, and 1982-1992 because of the 1975-1978 Congressionally established arms embargo on Turkey due to their invasion of Cyprus. After the postwar era Turkey's foremost ally was the United States. Turkey's strategic locations in the Middle East, it's proximity to the Soviet Unions military installations and test sites, and it's control of the Black Sea straits, and military ties with the US were a crucial factor in the East-West confrontation. The alliance originated soon after World War II, when Soviet dictator Joseph V. Stalin made a series of demands on Turkey that the Turkish and US government read as a possible prelude to military action. The Soviet occupation withdrawal in 1946 and communist geurilla warfare in Greece increased fears of a Soviet drive in the Middle east. The US responded with a proclamation of the Truman Doctrine in March 1947. Greece and Turkey were provided aid to resist the Soviet threat. Not convinced of Turkey's admission to NATO caused concern from the US shouldn't be approved). Turkish troops distinguised themselves with honor during the Korean conflict changing the US's view and Turkey was entered in 1952 as the only Muslim nation. Many thanks to Dr. Anthony Cordesman and his colleagues at the CSIS for their helpful support to supply initial data for analysis by ALU scholars. There was slight deterioration in the security cooperation during and after the arms embargo; however the US-Turkish military to military ties still were strong despite the arms embargo. Ties between Turkey and the US centered on funding, training, deployment partnerships since the conclusion of the Cold War and the removal of the US's competition with the Soviet Union. After the Soviet Union collapse, Foreign Military Aid, used to purchase US produced equipment, military and security assistance amounted to $472 million in grants and a requested $4.7 million for military training programs were requested from 1993-2012, as compared to over $3 billion in total grants from 1982-1992. Joint defense industry ventures (ex: Turkey's help with the development and production of the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter) steered Turkey in the direction of the US; however differing policy in the country wants to limit their reliance, so they seek outside sources for defense procurement (Germany, Italy, South Korea, and others). Their defense industrial base has been neglected for decades. Giving defense cooperation priority to the US and NATO, they helped with the ISAF mission in Afghanistan. Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, counterrorism operations against the PKK in the region have been put into check by the joint cooperation of the US and Turkey. Turkey is planning thru it's arms deals to negotiate for; 1) 30 F-16's C/D, 2) 6 CH-47F's, 3) 109 S-70i's, and 4) B-737 AEW&C aircraft, and refurbishment technology of F-16 aircraft. Turkey is also planning to purchase, since it is one of eight countries to partner with the US 100 F-35 Joint Strike Fighters by 2015. The security assistance has declined, however the military relationship between Ankara and Washington has been strong since the Cold War and the War on Terrorism. Cooperation has also included the withdrawal of troops from Iraq, and stabilization of the Kurdish Regional Government (KRG). Continued cooperation ensued with the fighting of terrorist groups, and their fight against the PKK. Cross border ambushes of Turkish troops in 2007, led to president Bush having a meeting with Prime Minister Erdogen, to hold him from launching a cross border invasion by making an agreement to provide intelligence about the PKK positions, establishment of a tripartite military agreement with the US, Iraq, and Turkey's cooperation against the PKK and declaring them to be a terorist organization and enemy of the US. Close cooperation also came in the form of US and NATO basing, land and air transit rights, and ballistic missile defense. In Turkey the US War in Afghanistan is being supported by 1700 military personnel stationed at the Incirlik Air Base, with munitions of B-61 nuclear gravity bombs on station. 68% of air logistical support for Iraq and Afghanistan went thru Incirlik. ALU scholars doing independant analysis suggested; 1) a Defense and Economic Cooperation Agreement should be renewed consolidating bilateral accords to increase the US military presence in Turkey, 2) negotiate to reopen certain communications and naval facilities, 3) Turkey has never waived it's sovereignty over the US, so the US should have American Officers serving alongside Turkish commanders since the bases are classified as joint use facilities, 4) respect Turkish sensitivity about their control and US presence, 5) counter extremist political factions against the US presence, 6) allow Turkey not to give open support for what they deem controversial and unpopular actions by the US, 7) reframe the seven to ten ratio formula that the US used to give funds to Greece and Turkey, 8) don't hold back funds, 9) low interest loans, and 10) continue US training at the US Command, and General Staff College with tradeoffs, 11) continue specialized training in management, language institution, medical logistics, and air traffic control with tradeoff measures in place, and 12) look into ways in which the US and Turkey can benefit financially. This could provide added funds for the sequestration (US), preventing or delaying the cuts in the future.
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