The NATO armies have reduced personnel, training, and delayed modernization, while Turkey has maintained a strong fighting force. With equipment upgrades and training in conducting asymmetric warfare, they have become a strong right arm of NATO. Leading the way in NATO's missile defense stands Turkey. Part of the European approach to the Phased Adaptation, the have hosted in 2011 an X-band AN/TPY-2 radar array to act as a deterrant to protection Europe from Iranian ballistic missiles. Many thanks to Dr. Anthony Cordesman and his colleagues at CSIS, Congressional Research Service (CRS), US Department of Defense, and the International Institute for Strategic Studies for providing the data for ALU scholars to analyze. Phase 1 of this radar system was important. Conditional deployment of the radar fell under two conditions that were emblematic of the current issues relating to Turkish foreign policy. Poor relations with Israel, allowed Turkey to demand that certain technology (sensor data) not be given to Israel. One condition they insisted on was the that no country be named as a threat or target to the defense system. Turkey is cautious as to their opinion of Iran's nuclear program. Not appearing provocative towards Iran warm relations were sought, but not materialized because of the fallout due to the Syrian Civil War. Turkey, in a cooperative effort with the US and NATO has been asked to review the impact and dangers involved in the Syrian Civil War causing it's concern for Iran and Syria to decrease. Wanting to protect their borders after several incidents involving Syrian aircraft and artillery, Ankara asked and received NATO supplied and operated Patriot missile batteries-receiving six batteries from the US, Germany, and the Netherlands (half the number they wanted). Gaziantemp will house the US acquired batteries and 400 soldiers which is 25 miles from Syria. The German batteries will be placed in Kahramanmaras which is 70 miles from the border, followed by the Dutch placing theirs in Adana, about 70 miles from the border. Operational time for the batteries will be in January. There have been tensions between The US-NATO-Turkish military relations. Despite the disputes between the US and Turkey related to the 1991 Gulf War and the 2003 Iraq War, directly related to their foreign policy, regional security, and the inflammation of the Kurdish issue still did not cause a change in government relations. A high period of tension came after the 1991 Gulf War with Turkey working with the US toward the end of the conflict hopeing that their cooperation would increase their strategic partnership elevating their chances for membership in the European community. Turkey's benefit from receiving it's support in the 1991 Gulf War in Turkish military terms of economic, and military aid did not change the consequences of, 1) reduced trade from Iraq, 2) regional destabilization, and 3) the improved ability of the PKK's operations from the safe havens in northern Iraq. Turkey's Kurdish problems increased after the Gulf War. The Kurdish enclave in northern Iraq, protected by the US and it's allies were used to stage PKK attacks on Turkish territory.One of Turkey's foreign relations was to deal with the Turks viewing the US support for the Kurdish in northern Iraq to be part of a plan for support for an independant Kurdish state on Turkey's southern border. The US-Turkey relations that were supposed to get stronger because of the war generated negative polarity within the public eye. Requesting Turkish territory use to open a second front for the invasion of Iraq in 2003 also caused problems for their relations; so on March 1 2003 the US was barred from using it's land to invade Iraq by the Turkish Grand National Assembly. Tensions between Ankara and Washington were caused by, 1) US refusing to take actions against PKK training camps in northern Iraq, 2) Iraqi Kurds drive for independance, 3) Iranian influence in Iraq, 4) increase in PKK attacks, and 5) the invasion in 2003. Anti US sentiments in Turkey were further escalated by increased PKK attacks. Historically having a negative view of the US, in later years a more favorable view is on the rise. Cooperation in counterterrorism has improved relations with the Kurds of Iraq since 2003. Public sentiment of the US is increasing because, 1) joint cooperation in fighting the PKK, and 2) President Obama's election in 2008. Turkey, being one of the major investors and trading partners since 2003 helping the economics of the Iraqi Kurds, still have problems with them and the Syrian Kurds. Diversifying their military, they are working a robust strategy of military procurement with US defense firms, and looking outside the US for defense products. Turkey's joint defense acquisition programs reducing it's dependance from one nation or a group of nations are looking into material that is very different from it's NATO counterparts. 50% of indigenous production by the end of 2010 was achieved in the fourth quarter of 2011 with the final involvement reaching 52.1%. Joint ventures with foreign companies such as South Korea, Germany, China, Russia, Italy, and the UK causes tensions with the US because of it's US arms export laws limiting sensitive technology transfer. For fiscal years 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011, 1) the Total Sales Agreements amounted to 1,962,976, 858,500, 575,730, 1,172,847, and 200,742 respectively, 2) Total Sales Deliveries amounted to 182,008, 306,033, 306,135, 253,053, and 994,305 respectively, 3) Foreign Military Sales Agreements amounted to 1,962,976, 358,693, 575,730, 1,172,847, and 200,742 respectively, 4) Foreign Military Sales Deliveries amounted to 182,008, 306,033, 306,135, 253,053, and 994,305 respectively, 5) Foreign Mil Fin Waived amounted to 14,232, 6,817, 1,000, and nil for 2010 and 2011, 6) Commercial Export Deliveries amounted to 241,054, 474,126, and nil for 2009, 2010 and 2011, 7) IMET Program and Emergency Drawdowns amounted to 3,497, 2,877, 3,199, 4,992, 3,990, 8) Combatting Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) amounted to 236, 390, 301, 666, 826 respectively 9) Number of Students Trained (IMET-International Military Education and Training, MASF-Military Assistance Service Fund ,Emergency Drawdowns) amounted to 228, 205, 233, 362, 240, 10) Number of Students Trained (CTFP) amounted to 11, 93, 19, 30, 40 respectively. The Major US-Origin Military Assets Service with the Turkish Military that encompasses Ground Forces, Air Forces, Navy, to encompass, 1) Main Battle Tanks-M48 (various types): 2,876, M60 (various types): 932, 2) Armored Personnel Carriers-M113 (various types): 2,813, 3) Artillery and Missile Systems M101A1/M114A1/M114A2/M115 (Towed): 754+, M108T/M52T/M44T1/M107/M110A2 (Self Propelled): 868, MLRS (Multiple Launch Rocket System): 12, Mortars (various types): 5,813+, 4) Transport Helicopters-UH-60/UH-1H (various types): 243, 5) Attack Helicopters-AH-1P/AH-1W: 32, 6) Attack Aircraft-F-5: 54, F-4E (various types): 284+, F-16C/D: 213, 7) Intelligence/Surveillance/Reconnaissance-RF-4E: 35, 8) Tanker/Transport-KC-135R: 7, C-130B/E: 35, 9) Frigates-Gaziantep (ex-Oliver Hazard Perry Class): 8, Muavenet (ex- Knox Class): 1, 10) Mine Warfare/Mine Countermeasures-Silifke (ex-Adjutant Class): 5, Foca (ex-USCGC Cape Class): 4. ALU scholars suggested, 1) increase sales of patriot missile batteries, 2) increase relations with Israel (another country to be mediator by giving them access to certain technology (sensor data), 3) negotiate a cease fire in Syria, 4) US to decrease support for the Iraq and Syrian Kurds, while maintaining oversight on both of them and Turkey, 5) on the Joint Defense Acquisition, the US and NATO should be concerned about their material being put into other nations systems for creation of a hybrid system that can be duplicated (accountability of materials).
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