The 2nd Exodus Motif in John's Gospel
One of the great themes in the Bible is the Exodus. Many are familiar with the history of Moses leading the ancient Israelites from Egypt to their promised land in Canaan. However, not many are are as familiar with the Exodus motif in the NT. However, it permeates the entire NT and was referred to often by Christ in the gospels and by the Apostles in their letters.
The gospel of John is full of such references to the Exodus. The following are a few examples:
- Jesus as the Word or Divine Law of God revealed to Israel, Jn. 1:1
- Jesus as the Shekinah glory who tabernacled among Israel while on earth, Jn. 1:14
- Jesus as the Paschal Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world, Jn. 1:29
- Jesus as the Salvation of Israel lifted up Moses lifted up the serpent, Jn. 3:14
- Jesus as the new temple that exceeds the glory of the tabernacle in the wildnernes, Jn. 2:19-21
- Jesus as the new birth in contrast to the baptism unto Moses, Jn. 3:3-8; Compare 1 Cor. 10:1
- Jesus as the Living Water, Jn. 4
- Jesus as the new mountain/kingdom temple (tabernacle), Jn. 4;20-24
- Jesus as the healer of troubled waters Jn. 5 See at Meribah, Ex. 15:25
- Jesus as the Manna from heaven, the True Bread of Life, Jn. 6
- Jesus as the Supplier of the Holy Spirit at the Feast of Tabernacles via Living Water, Jn. 7:39
- Jesus as the Great "I AM" at the burning bush, Jn. 8:58
- Jesus as the one who performed awesome miracles during the Exodus, Jn. 9
- Jesus as the new Moses, the Good Shepherd who leads his people and protects them from wolves, Jn. 10
- Jesus as the one who brings true immortality which could not be found in Egypt, Jn. 11:25-26
- Jesus as the one who destroys Pharaoh, (Satan), the ruler of the world, Jn. 12
- Jesus as the true Passover Meal, Jn. 13
- Jesus as the new temple of glory, Jn. 14-16, 23
These are but a few of the themes found in John's gospel which directly allude to the Exodus motif.
Jesus' Death Begins the 2nd Exodus
At the vision of his transfiguration, Moses and Elijah appeared with Jesus to speak with him about his decease which he would accomplish at Jerusalem. The word "decease" is translated from "exodus". See Luke 9:31 and the Greek text.
Jesus therefore died to the Old Covenant in which he was born to be raised in a new world of the Spirit. Hebrews is a great book to study along the same lines of this NT journey through the wilderness until the saints reach the heavenly Jerusalem or Canaan (Heb. 11:13-16; 12:22-28.
The Second Exodus Accomplished in 40 Years
As the first exodus was a journey through the wilderness of 40 years, the NT presents redemption from the bondage of sin, also occurred within a period of 40 years from Jesus death to the Parousia. God delivered Israel in one generation, a period of about 40 years, Heb. 3:7-10. The same was true of salvation in the NT from Jesus' death and ascension to his return in AD 70.
Check out more studies on Covenant Eschatology at AllThingsFulfilled.com