From the sixteenth century ROME is building and MODERNIZING to create a beautiful city for the world to see and ARTISTS to be able to come and learn to create ART and further to bring glory to the catholic capital. Eventually an International Society of ARTISTS will develop which continues from the time of POUSSIN through the Era of Sir Reynolds and up to the NAZARENES and the Danish School around the turn of the century at 1800. This globalizing Centralization for the MODERN ARTIST took on an essential Cosmopolitanism for the fraternities of ARTISTS who made the journey. This became a significant growing experience for ARTISTS. At the same time that Nationalistic sensibilities developed, the ARTIST was developing their sense of COSMOPOLITAN autonomy which further accentuated the 'freewill' and internal Individuation processes of the ARTISTS. The ARTISTS in ROME did remain subdivided into Nationalistic groups which recognized common standards which in turn exercised upon each other a considerable reciprocal influence.
The French Academy paid the supreme tribute to ROME by establishing it's school there. POUSSIN in his later years exercised a general Deanship and formed a school equally independent of the official French School and of the true Roman tradition. This INDIVIDUATING personality is key to the development of the MODERN ARTIST. With the exception of CARAVAGGIO, the Italian school of Carracci became less penetrating and more decorative: more popular: the Carracci and their followers had all the faults of the baroque. The purely Italian painting of the last part of the century was without great significance and came to hold a greater tolerance for bad art (later termed as "kitsch") which began to cause ROME to fade as an example to greatness. As with the transitions of Napoleon; PARIS will take over this position as the ART CAPITAL of Europe into the nineteenth century.
The baroque was also a time breaking away from Classicism. Classicism was a standard FORM from which were thought to have ETERNAL validity and thus "true" beauty. Technically the word 'baroque' comes from >BAROCO< which is a scholastic term: thus also it was associated with the humanist dislike for scholasticism and could also mean ..intricate..perverse..eccentric..all these in relation to the fixed stability of Classicism. The baroque ushered in an eclecticism..a pragmatism. A complex and unfixed combination of everything which rose up to the top to come to denote the INDIVIDUAL. This INDIVIDUAL struggled and rose above the materialism of the overwhelming surrounding merchant economy which was also MODERNIZING Europe. In paintings, the mythopsychological associations weren't enough anymore. A deeper climb into a yet undefined place that will eventually be found and labeled by the ROMANTIC philosopher Schelling: the SUBCONSCIOUS; will breech the prior Idolization of human EMOTIONS (as in Greek and Roman Gods) to allow a science of human EMOTIONS to develop..called Psychology.
A force of self projection of mental "States of MIND" clearly and immediately began meeting in the creation of works of ART during the baroque. Continuing beyond and exploding in the ROMANTIC ERA to follow. This projection of thoughts, concepts, metaphors even manifested as a great SEA CHANGE to a new set of AESTHETICS and style as the power of compartmentalizing different perspectives through DESIGN poured out to create new fashion everywhere.
Yet the drive to manifest the purer FINE ART of the manifestations "of " the mind continued to look for FORM in Oil Painting. Towards the end of the baroque some overwhelming examples of highly unique and powerfully original ARTISTS were finding expression in the elevation of the LANDSCAPE as a vast Natural World to be found to be able to hold the purity and somehow an eternal cleanliness to the "civilized" world that humans seemed unable to contain and not tarnish and could not maintain. Our "State of MIND" could look to LANDSCAPES and they refreshed the viewer like nothing else could. And, especially at the rise of the transforming ordeal of the dawning Industrial World.