Uzekistan's geographical, human geography, and politcal history starts with being Central Asia's largest population and bordering the other Central Asian states. The country has a commodity on energy, water, urnium, gold, cotton, and trade. Security within the region are concerns for the US. Having deep cultural and historical ties, Uzbekistan and Iran have a limited cooperation relationship. Recognizing the independance of the country on December 25, 1991, the US opened an embassy in Tashkent in March 1992. To date there are 20 years of diplomatic relations between the United States and Uzbekistan. Contributions of data from the Center of Strategic Studies (Anthony Cordesman) helped ALU scholars to perform a analysis of the country to later write a briefing book for he President of the United States. Early US policy was to support the country in the develpment of an independant sovereign nation utilizing democratic institutions rooted in law. After September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, the US and Uzbekistan cooperated prior to the start of the War in Afghanistan. Relations were toned down when the US and Europe demanded an investigation into the May 2005 Andijon violence; with the Government of Uzbekistan limiting US influence and other foreign non-governmental organizations (NGOS) that were working on civil society, political reform, and human rights within the country. The US and Uzbekistan during mid 2007 rebuilt their cooperation on the mutual issues of security and economic relations, political and civil society issues. Secretary Clinton's visit in 2011 strengthened relations. The Northern District Network with it's logistics route for NATO supplies to Afghanistan runs through Uzbekistan. $330 million in assistance from USAID has been allocated to help them to curb instability and help with economic growth. There is a culture of runaway crime and state corruption. One example was the US company Telecom Inc., which was forced out to be taken over by President Karimov's eldest daughter. July 1994 saw Uzbekistan join the NATO partnership for peace program, and March 2002, they signed the US-Uzbek Declaration on the Strategic Partnership and Cooperation Framework, which provides an avenue for economic, military, and diplomatic process to begin. Human rights abuses forced the US to stop military aid (covert actions with the Department of Defense-limited aid). 65,000 people make up the Uzbekistan military force in Central Asia. It's based on the Soviet armed forces structure, even though it is moving toward restructuring; it is looking into light and special forces format. With their new mission of territorial security, they are not modern, and their training is improving. Accepting arms control obligations from the former Soviet Union, they have ascended to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (non nuclear state), supporting an active program by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), demilitarize and clean up former weapons of mass destruction-related facilities in western Uzbekistan (Nukus and Vozrozhdeniye Island), and guard against the proliferation of radiological materials across the borders. They received International Military Education (IMET), Foreign Military Assistance (FMF), and security assistance from 1990 to 2004. Stopping the Uzbekistan assistance in 2004 of FMF and IMET, the Secretary of State started US Government Legislation finding it unable to vertify the Uzbekistan government was meeting it's commitments, up to and including respect for human rights and economic reform (US-Uzbekistan Strategic Framework Agreement). The country's only post-independance president stopped political dissent in Uzbekistan, banning opposition groups, especially Islamic ones, and stopping the press and jailing thousands. Cited as one of the world's worst torturers, their punishments included beatings, rape, and boiling meted out in their overcrowded jails. International condemnation ensued in 2005 when hundreds of unarmed protestors demonstrated support of a group of arrested local businessman were shot by security forces in the city of Andijan. Criticism of activities at Andijan forced a shut down of a US airbase. Relations are improving, but the base is still closed. The 2009 visit by General Petraeus, discussing the Uzbek role in the US-led was in Afghanistan, including signing an agreement to allow the supplies for the NATO effort to travel through Uzbekistan. A security cooperation pact with military training was signed in 2010 by Centcom commander General James Mattis. Reasons for not being cut off was to 1) push the country's human rights record, 2) country's real estate and proximity to the war in Afghanistan, makes the country too valuable. With the problems in Pakistan, the alternate transit route (Northern Distribution Network) becomes important.Termez to Mazar-i-Sharif has very good road and rail service between Afghanistan and Central Asia. Suggestions would be to, 1) the embassy in Tashken could do inhouse research to determine aid for regional security,and gain energy influence, 2) make sure their democratic institutions are rooted in law, 3) set up an alternate rival company (Telecom Inc.) to create competition (free market enterprise), 4) reframe the US-Uzbek Declaration on the Strategic Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, 5) help to reframe the obligation for the arms control agreement from the former Soviet Union, working towards the non-proliferation treaty since they are a non nuclear state, and 6) work more closely with the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).
Rescuers sort through the tornado rubble in search of survivors.How you can help