'Super-spaghetti' made from barley with heart-healthy label now possible, says a September 14, 2011 news release, "Super-spaghetti' with heart-healthy label now possible." Many dieters are told to avoid pasta because if it's made from wheat (likely GMO wheat or chlorine-bleached flour known as white flour: See, The Little-Known Secrets about Bleached Flour). Gluten-free spaghetti might include pasta/noodles made from rice flour and water, corn (but is it organic or GMO corn?) and other grains or legumes, such as garbanzo bean flour.
Some people are calling the functional food trend by names that have the wrong connotation when described as the functional food craze or fad. It's a trend to super foods for health, not a 'craze' or eating frenzy and not a fad, because fads end and trends continue to get measurable results.
For those looking for fiber from noodles and pasta varieties, consumers in supermarkets now in 2013 can see packages of pasta labeled "good source of dietary fiber" and "may reduce the risk of heart disease" thanks to the development of a new genre of pasta made with barley—a grain famous for giving beer its characteristic strength and flavor. The report appears in the American Chemical Society (ACS') Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.
Also see the study or its abstract, "Metabolomics and Food Processing: From Semolina to Pasta." And take a look at, "Fermented Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan) Ingredients in Pasta Products." You also could see the abstract of a study, "Fractionation and Reconstitution Experiments Provide Insight into the Role of Starch Gelatinization and Pasting Properties in Pasta Quality." The point is how does pasta affect your blood sugar levels?
Vito Verardo, Ana Maria Gómez-Caravaca and colleagues explain that barley, a grain that is an excellent source of fiber and antioxidants, is gaining interest as an ingredient in so-called "functional foods" — a genre of foods that are supplemented with healthful additives. The functional foods trend began in Japan in the mid-1980s and caught on around the world with health-conscious consumers, creating a fast-growing industry that is expected to reach over $176 billion by 2013.
A new view on an ancient theme is to add barley to bakery products or pasta. Barley has been eaten for thousands of years, and it does contain gluten. You can check out sites such as "Is Barley Good For Diabetics? - HealthCentral," and "10 Dangerous Foods for Diabetes - Joy Bauer."
Barley is already added to some bakery products
To determine whether barley could make a new functional spaghetti by providing fiber and antioxidants, the researchers developed a barley flour, that contains the most nutritious part of the grain and used it to make pasta. This flour corresponds to the barley by-products and has been obtained by an healthy separation method such as the air classification.
They found that the barley spaghetti had more fiber and more antioxidant activity than traditional semolina-based spaghettis. Adding gluten to barley flour improved the cooking quality of the pasta, but lowered its antioxidant activity. The authors acknowledge funding from the Italian Ministry of Instruction, University and Scientific Research and the Spanish Ministerio de Educacion.
Is it true that you can't say anything 'bad' about a restaurant's food if your opinion goes public?
A few years ago, Italian Food critic of Milan, Edoardo Raspelli was sued by the American fast food giants McDonalds for criticizing them in an Italian newspaper, saying, 'It takes a big effort to imagine this food as healthy'...'The ambience was mechanical, the potatoes were obscene and tasting of cardboard, and the bread poor. I found it alienating and vulgar'.
That means, you can't give your subjective opinion about a particular food you eat in a restaurant, even if you are only visiting the USA. The reason is when you give a bad review and especially if your job is a food critic in the media, by saying something bad about a restaurant's food, even if you make it clear it's only your personal, subjective opinion, has enough clout to destroy the income of that restaurant or restaurant/eatery chain. Now, on a different note, let's take a look at how certain types of gut bacteria have a sweet tooth.
People in the media who are professional food writers or food critics have enough influence or klout in the media to influence the public. Even Oprah Winfrey was once sued for saying hamburgers aren't that great. See, "Oprah Winfrey vs. The Beef People | PBS NewsHour | Jan. 20, 1998."
It's one thing if you exercise free speech as a private person and tell your kids certain foods from any given place aren't that hot, since it's your personal preference to eat what you like. But you could be sued if your opinion in a review goes public.
Also, you could be sued if your occupation is in the media or you have influence with the public when you make any type of verbal or written statement even in social media including putting up a bad review about a business or a person, destroying that business's or person's income potential or reputation in his or her occupation, including if you criticize someone's work efforts or labor, since other people may enjoy that work or product.
So be careful what you say if you're giving a review online about anyone or any business that can be seen by the public or use social media. You could be sued for defamation. See, "Negative Online Reviews: Why You Can Be Sued for Defamation."
What if you like a certain type of food or a restaurant's ambiance in a public review?
On the opposite end, there are businesses who would love to have you give them a great review and good publicity which brings more people to their establishments. That's why quite a few publicists first send their news releases for approval to any business before letting their work go public online or in print.
At least if a review is highly recommended and favorable in public, you're helping a business thrive. If you see trouble, a reference to a government website that's investigating any given firm at least refers readers to the issue without you defaming anyone or harming a company's income potential.
How bacteria with a sweet tooth may keep us healthy
Some gut bacterial strains are specifically adapted to use sugars in our gut lining to aid colonization, potentially giving them a major influence over our gut health, says a new study, "Utilization of Mucin Glycans by the Human Gut Symbiont Ruminococcus gnavus is strain-dependent." Authors are Crost, E. H. et al. The journal PLOS ONE published the study, October 25, 2013.
We live in a symbiotic relationship with trillions of bacteria in our gut. They help us digest food, prime our immune system and keep out pathogens. In return we provide a suitable environment for them to grow, including a layer of mucus that coats the gut lining, says the October 25, 2013 news release, "How bacteria with a sweet tooth may keep us healthy."
Mucus is formed from proteins called mucins that have sugars associated with them
These form a diverse and complex range of structures. Mucins provide attachment sites and a source of nutrition for some bacteria, but not all species are allowed to take advantage of this. The complexity of the sugar structures in the mucins is thought to be how our bodies specify which bacteria can set up home, but exactly how this works isn't yet known.
New findings from the Institute of Food Research which is strategically funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), are providing insights into the interaction between bacteria and mucins, and how the specificity of these interactions affects health. Dr Nathalie Juge and her team at the Institute of Food Research (IFR) have shown that the ability to use mucins in the human gut varies between different gut bacteria strains. The Institute of Food Research is a world leader in research into harnessing food for health and preventing food-related diseases and is located in the UK.
The Institute of Food Research (IFR) researchers looked at the common gut bacteria known as Ruminococcus gnavus
This is a common species of gut bacteria found in over 90% of people, including infants just a few days old. It has also been implicated in gut-related health conditions. A number of studies have shown that patients suffering from Inflammatory Bowel Diseases have a disproportionate representation of R. gnavus.
This study looked at two different R. gnavus strains. Although both R. gnavus strains can use mucins, only one had the ability to survive when mucins were the sole source of food.
Comparing the genomes of the R. gnavus strains identified gene clusters used to breakdown mucins. Differences in these genes explain the different abilities of the strains to use mucins. The mucin sugar structures change in different parts of the gut and over time, suggesting the strains may be adapted for different environments or to colonize us at different times.
For example, the R. gnavus strain adapted to survive solely on mucins may give it the ability to colonize the guts of newborn babies, when mucins represent the only sources of sugars for bacteria. In adults, the strains of bacteria that degrade mucins are the ones most likely to contact the cells underneath the mucus and so these strains are the ones most likely to influence health.
A better understanding of which strains use mucins and exactly how they do this will give us new insights into what makes a healthy gut bacteria population, and how fluctuations from this might link to gut diseases like Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. For further information, check out the sites of the Norwich BioScience Institutes or the BBSRC - Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council.