Skip to main content

See also:

Study shows impact of tart cherries on inflammation and oxidative stress

Cyclists who drank Montmorency tart cherry juice concentrate before a three-day simulated race experienced less inflammation and oxidative stress compared to those who drank another beverage, according to a new U.K. study, "Montmorency Cherries Reduce the Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Responses to Repeated Days High-Intensity Stochastic Cycling," published online February 21, 2014 in the journal Nutrients.

Study shows impact of tart cherries on inflammation and oxidative stress after cycling.
Study shows impact of tart cherries on inflammation and oxidative stress after cycling.Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images

Cyclists who drank Montmorency tart cherry juice concentrate before a three-day simulated race experienced less inflammation and oxidative stress compared to those who drank another beverage, according to the recent U.K. study. A research team led by Dr. Glyn Howatson with PhD student Phillip Bell at Northumbria University gave 16 well-trained, male cyclists about 1 ounce (30 ml) of Montmorency tart cherry juice concentrate mixed with water (equivalent to 90 whole Montmorency tart cherries per serving), or a calorie-matched placebo, twice a day for seven days. On days five, six and seven, the participants performed prolonged, high-intensity cycling intervals – exercise that was designed to replicate the demands of a three-day race.

The researchers collected blood samples and found that markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were significantly lower in the cyclists who consumed the tart cherry juice concentrate compared to those who did not

At one point during the trial, oxidative stress was nearly 30 percent lower in the tart cherry group compared to the other group. Strenuous exercise can cause temporary inflammation and oxidative stress that can lead to muscle damage, muscle soreness and reduced capacity to recover quickly, explains research lead Glyn Howatson, Ph.D., laboratory director at the Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation at Northumbria University. He attributes the recovery benefits shown in the study to the natural compounds in Montmorency tart cherries. One of the natural compounds found in Montmorency tart cherries is anthocyanins.

“Previous studies have looked at tart cherries and the effect on recovery following weight lifting exercise and marathon running, but until now there hasn’t been information on recovery following strenuous exercise from cycling,” said Howatson, according to the June 2, 2014 news release, Study shows impact of tart cherries on inflammation and oxidative stress after cycling. “We found that those cyclists that consumed Montmorency tart cherry juice had statistically significant lower indices of inflammation and metabolic oxidative stress, which is the first time it has been demonstrated following this type of exercise.”

Tart cherries are available year-round in dried, frozen and juice forms –including juice concentrate, which was the form used in this new study

Montmorency tart cherry juice concentrate can be mixed with water or consumed as a “shot.” It can also be used to make smoothies, mixed with frozen tart cherries or other fruits. The Cherry Marketing Institute provided financial support for the analysis of inflammatory indices. All other elements of the study were funded by Northumbria University and the University of Ulster, UK. Authors of the study are Bell PG, Walshe IH, Davison GW, and Stevenson E, Howatson G.

The funders had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript. For more information on the growing body of research on tart cherry juice and exercise, visit the Choose Cherries website.

About the Cherry Marketing Institute

The Cherry Marketing Institute is a not-for-profit organization funded by North American tart cherry growers and processors. CMI’s mission is to increase the demand for tart cherries through promotion, market expansion, product development and research. For more information — including research, recipes, serving ideas and product forms – visit the Choose Cherries website.

What cherry juice does for both seniors and athletes is to lessen the pain of arthritis, gout, and various joint injuries is act as anti-inflammatory food by attacking the Cox-2 enzymes better than some drugs, but with drugs, the Cox 1 also is attacked

You don't want to keep attacking the Cox-1enzymes because Cox-1 protects the lining of the stomach. This is why so many people who take anti-inflammatory commercial drugs on a regular basis develop stomach problems. But with the cherry juice, there's no stomach issue because cherries contain flavonoids and antioxidants that have a protective effect on the stomach, minimizing the deleterious effects of inhibiting Cox-1 enzymes.

What the cherry juice does is act as anti-inflammatory food by attacking the Cox-2 enzymes better than some drugs. But with drugs, the Cox 1 also is attacked. You don't want that because Cox-1 protects the lining of the stomach.

Cherry juice is anti-inflammatory

This is why so many people who take anti-inflammatory commercial drugs on a regular basis develop stomach problems. But with the cherry juice, there's no stomach issue because cherries contain flavonoids and antioxidants that have a protective effect on the stomach, minimizing the deleterious effects of inhibiting Cox-1 enzymes.

According to the article, "For Arthritis Sufferers, Life Is a Bowl of Cherries," by Rachel Williamson, published at the Arthritis and Glucosamine Resource Center site, "The Arthritis Foundation says that "drinking tart cherry juice mixed with water three times a day may be beneficial for some people with arthritis."

Anthocyanins in cherries have antioxidant effects: Why do so many football players drink cherry juice for pain relief?

University of California, Davis and other universities may study the anthocyanins in cherries, apples, or any other fruit, possible to show their "antioxidant activity and beneficial effects for diabetes control and reducing the risk of coronary heart diseases."

Which has more health benefits, apples or cherries? In the Sacramento and Davis regional areas, UC Davis studies the health benefits of apple juice. But you have to ask yourself why do so many major league football players drink cherry juice for pain relief instead of 'sugary' apple juice?

They're told by some nutritionists that eating 45 cherries could take away arthritis pain, reduce crystal deposits around arthritic joints, lower high blood pressure, and the LDL (bad) form of cholesterol calcium levels.

Tart cherry juice mixed with water may help some people with osteoarthritis

According to the article, "For Arthritis Sufferers, Life Is a Bowl of Cherries," by Rachel Williamson, published at the Arthritis and Glucosamine Resource Center site, "The Arthritis Foundation says that "drinking tart cherry juice mixed with water three times a day may be beneficial for some people with arthritis."

Cherries also contain varied antioxidants, "including kaempferol and quercetin. These compounds, particularly quercetin, may have anti-inflammatory effects that are similar to those of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin and ibuprofen."

Healing aspects of food: Foods that may reduce testosterone

According to another article, the Arthritis article at the MotherNature.com site, "Many studies have shown that a vegetarian diet is very beneficial in helping to lessen or even eliminate arthritis pain," says Neal Barnard, M.D., president of the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine in Washington, D.C.

Dr. Barnard is author of the books, Food for Life, Foods that lessen pain and foods that worsen pain, and also the book, Foods That Fight Pain, as well as other writings on the healing aspects of food.

According to the MotherNature.com site article, “We don’t know exactly why, but when we take patients off animal food sources, in many cases their arthritis will go into complete remission. This applies particularly to dairy as well as to meats,” the article reports.

Anti-inflammatory antioxidants in cherries may be similar to effects of NSAID drugs

Cherries also contain varied antioxidants, "including kaempferol and quercetin. These compounds, particularly quercetin, may have anti-inflammatory effects that are similar to those of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin and ibuprofen."

Besides looking at apples, another big debate is whether cherry juice, which is safer for most people, reduces the pain of arthritis better than commercial anti-osteoarthritis drugs with less side effects. You can refer to the 1999 study of the anthocyanins in tart cherries by Michigan State University researchers.

Cherries protect the lining of the stomach better than some commercial arthritis drugs, say some nutritionists. Here's why. The scientists were researching how anthocyanins prevent free radical damage and inhibit cyclooxygenase enzymes better than some anti-inflammatory drugs that work as Cox inhibitors.

High levels of anthocyanins in cherries for insulin-releasing stimulatory properties

Studies at other universities on cherries found that sour (tart) cherries contain high levels of anthocyanins that possess insulin-releasing stimulatory properties on pancreatic ß-cells in vitro. But the average reader goes to the news articles first because for the general consumer, it would take time to look up in the primary sources of medical journals what "pancreatic ß-cells in vitro" means, unless you've studied life sciences, nursing, or medicine.

Almost every natural food treatments book mentions cherry juice and cherries as a pain reliever for arthritis, gout, some sports injuries, and even headaches. Let's look for evidence and validation.

An excellent article online at the Natural Health Remedies & Detox site (run by a former nurse) remarks how well cherry juice takes away the pain of gout. The site notes that, "Drinking large quantities of tart cherry juice can relieve the pain and inflammation of a gout attack in a few days."

Natural treatment books mention cherries as pain relievers for arthritis, gout, certain sports injuries, and some headaches

The article states that, "In fact one report found that this simple natural health remedy may relieve pain better than aspirin or other anti-inflammatory drugs that can cause ulceration and bleeding of the lining of the digestive system." But what's the name of the report?

It's important to validate information in various reports on cherry juice. Check out a link to an e-book on relieving gout pain. The article at the link warned that plumbers exposed to lead may suffer from gout. The kidneys aren't able to excrete uric acid because the toxic lead as a heavy metal interferes with the ability of the kidneys to work normally.

The article on the link noted, "Sufferers find that drinking 2 or 3 pints of concentrated cherry juice or eating half a pound of fresh or canned cherries a day can relieve a gout attack in a few days. But as too much fruit consumption or the use of fructose is thought to aggravate some types of gout it may be better to use cherry extract capsules."

It's important to learn that too much fruit can aggravate some types of gout because fruit is half fructose. So I decided to look at more sources. But the article is excellent because it informed me how cherries halt the pain of arthritis and gout by lowering uric acid levels. It's the anthocyanins which are the red pigments in cherries that reduce inflammation. And arthritis begins with inflammation.

The SteadyHealth.com site, notes that cherry juice concentrate (made of tart cherries) "contains anthocyanins and antioxidants in tart cherries that are ten times stronger than aspirin or ibuprofen." The article states that cherry juice concentrate "can reduce headaches, gout, pain of arthritis, chance of kidney stones, tooth decay, and gallbladder ailments."

The article at the site mentions... "It can even reduce cholesterol and decrease the chance of heart attack by 30%." It is also believed that..."Cherry Juice Concentrate lowers chances of cancer by 50%." The article also says... "to be able to work, this product needs to be taken daily."

Cherry juice, whole berries, or concentrate?

The recommended dose is "two spoons of Cherry Juice Concentrate mixed with eight ounces of beverage is a direction for use of this product." But the article did not specify whether the two spoons are teaspoons or tablespoons. Ads for black cherry juice and concentrate appear at the bottom of the site.

The CherryPharm site does have a table comparing cherry juice (not concentrate) to other juices such as blueberry, pomegranate, grape, and exotic juices. Their table shows that (with the 50 cherries per juice bottle) the CherryPharm bottled cherry juice contains more antioxidant as measured by its 'Orac' value and also anthocyanins per eight once bottle than any of the bottled juices, including other cherry juices compared.

On their "Medical Experts Agree" link, the statement notes, "CherryPharm is currently in use by elite athletes and pro teams around the world. Four of the top 10 ranked NCAA D-1 football teams, including the national champions, drank CherryPharm during the 2008-2009 season."

Check out the uTube video link on the CherryPharm site that noted beneath the video link that "The British Journal of Sports Medicine reports that a tart cherry juice (CherryPharm), packed with antioxidants and natural anti-inflammatories, significantly speeds up muscle recovery. The video explains, "Drink a cup daily, starting one day before a big workout."

Do any of the juice links have a footnote somewhere on their sites giving the name and date of the study or report? It's a good idea to look at the findings in a scientific or medical journal. Check out the uTube video on how cherry juice improves sleep.

Cherry juice reduces muscle pain induced by exercise

At the Seniors Network, an article, "Cherry juice reduces muscle pain induced by exercise," summarizes the study done by the British Journal of Sports Medicine. Researchers compared cherry juice to commercial apple juice. The article noted that, "There was a significant difference in the degree of muscle strength loss between those drinking the cherry juice blend and those taking the dummy mixture."

Also, that article reports, "Pain also peaked at 24 hours for those drinking cherry juice, but continued to increase for those on the dummy mixture for the subsequent 48 hours." The news article didn't mention the date of the study.

Flavanols and flavonoids improve blood flow and may lower blood pressure

The What's Cooking America site has an article on cherry juice, also noting that flavanols improve blood flow, heart and brain health, and lower blood pressure. Cherry juice has been featured on the CNBC TV show "Mike on America," in Oprah magazine, the New York Post, Newsweek, In Touch, Escape, Vogue and on other media. I'm still searching for a site that actually cites or offers footnotes or a link to view at least abstracts of any research studies published in medical or scientific journals. It would help validate what cherry juice can do, what's in it, and how it works.

If you take cherries with fish oil, which works better, the cherries or the fish oil, or both when it comes to mild arthritis? Would there be additional benefit by adding two tablespoons of lecithin granules to a smoothie made of cherries and fish oil with some liquid such as tart cherry juice and home-made almond milk?

Effects of cherry juice on blood glucose

Another informative actual research article based on cherry juice research is, "Effects of sour cherry juice on blood glucose and some cardiovascular risk factors improvements in diabetic women: A pilot study," by authors, Asal Ataie-Jafari, Saeed Hosseini, Farzaneh Karimi, and Mohammad Pajouhi, in the Nutrition & Food Science journal, year: 2008, volume: 38, issue 4.

Check out the Nutrition & Food Science journal site. and read the article based on the study, titled: Effects of sour cherry juice on blood glucose and some cardiovascular risk factors improvements in diabetic women: A pilot study, (pp. 355-360). Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing Limited. The only obstacle is that to see the article in its entirety online, you have to buy the article from the journal. But you can look at the findings of the study and the method used at the article's link by clicking here.

To read the article for free in print, your local university library might have a copy for you to read in the library if you telephone them. There's also interlibrary loan for various journal studies articles from university libraries to your public library branch. But for my purpose, reading the findings and method in abstract form is sufficient to see whether the cherries helped the patients.

You have to tell health news readers in plain language what beta cells in a lab dish is supposed to reveal about how cherries affect the pancreas in a good way in your study. That's why news articles are read more than journal articles. People want to hear the findings: does it work or not? Yes. It works...for me. But how does it work for your individual situation and genes?

The journal article's purpose investigated "whether concentrated sour cherry juice (CSCJ) beneficially alters serum glucose and some cardiovascular risk factors in diabetes type 2 subjects." What the study found revealed that "After six weeks' consumption of CSCJ, significant reductions in body weight, blood pressure and HbA1c was seen. Total cholesterol and LDL-C decreased significantly in a sub-group of patients as well." Check out the journal article to see the precise amounts and the health issue related to the specific sub-group of patients.

The symbols are the reason why so many news articles leave out such details. But the value of the study and article found that "Based on the results of this study, consuming 40g/day of CSCJ decreases body weight, blood pressure and HbA1c in diabetes type 2 women after 6 weeks and improves blood lipids in diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia." In news articles, media doesn't always want to use the word, 'lipid' because some readers would have to look up the meaning. So it's easier to write 'fats' instead of 'lipids.'

That may be the reason why so many news articles say "based on a report" instead of citing the report's details in limited media space available. The big picture is drinking cherry juice in moderation did lower blood pressure, weight, improved blood fats and cholesterol, and helped diabetic patients with too much fat in their bloodstream.

The great debate: does cherry juice work better than some anti-inflammatory commercial drugs?

The major debate in the politics of nutrition versus commercial drugs is that cherry juice from tart cherries supposedly works better than some anti-osteoarthritis drugs. But the other side of the debate says cherry juice studies were done on animals, not humans. On the nutrition side, football players, humans, report cherry juice eases their pains.

Black cherry juice is good for arthritis, says Eve Campanelli, Ph.D., a holistic family practitioner in Beverly Hills, California, according to the Arthritis article at the MotherNature.com site. The article reports that, Dr. Campanelli "estimates that around 85 percent of her patients with arthritis get at least partial relief from drinking two glasses of this juice twice a day." (Each glass contains four ounces of juice diluted with four ounces of water). “Fresh is always best, but even black cherry juice from concentrate seems to benefit arthritis,” she says in the article. According to the article, Dr. Campanelli explains that you can "discontinue this treatment once the pain clears up."

But what if you don't have osteoarthritis, and have rheumatoid arthritis instead? According to the Arthritis article at the MotherNature.com site, “People with rheumatoid arthritis should include in their daily diets juices high in the anti-inflammatory nutrientes,” Cherie Calbom, M.S., a certified nutritionist in Kirkland, Washington, and co-author of Juicing for Life, reported in the article.

Calbom also says, according to the Arthritis article at the MotherNature.com site, that "these nutrients include beta-carotene (found in parsley, broccoli and spinach) and copper (found in carrots, apples and ginger)." Calbom has also seen rheumatoid arthritis improve with a glass or two a day of pineapple juice. “It’s the only known source of the enzyme bromelain, which has strong anti-inflammatory properties,” she reported in the Arthritis article at the MotherNature.com site.

Calbom also cautions in the article that certain juices may cause adverse reactions in people with osteoarthritis. “Avoid citrus fruits, and be careful with vegetables from the nightshade family, including potatoes, tomatoes, peppers and eggplant,” says Calbom. “Citrus seems to promote swelling, and nightshades contain psyllium alkaloids, which cause problems for some people.”

So that leaves us with the good news about cherry juice and osteoarthritis pain. Cherry juice seems to lessen pain of gout and osteoarthritis, including pain caused by some mild football injuries.

Football players drink cherry juice for pain relief from certain sports injuries

Why do so many major league football players drink cherry juice for pain relief? They're told by nutritionists that eating 45 cherries could take away arthritis pain, reduce crystal deposits around arthritic joints, lower high blood pressure, and the LDL (bad) form of cholesterol calcium levels. Almost every natural food treatments book mentions cherry juice and cherries as a pain reliever for arthritis, gout, some sports injuries, and even headaches.

Let's look for evidence and validation. An excellent article online at the Natural Health Remedies & Detox site (run by a former nurse) remarks how well cherry juice takes away the pain of gout. The site notes that, "Drinking large quantities of tart cherry juice can relieve the pain and inflammation of a gout attack in a few days."

Cherries as pain relievers

The article states that, "In fact one report found that this simple natural health remedy may relieve pain better than aspirin or other anti-inflammatory drugs that can cause ulceration and bleeding of the lining of the digestive system." But what's the name of the report?

What did get attention is that it noted, "Sufferers find that drinking 2 or 3 pints of concentrated cherry juice or eating half a pound of fresh or canned cherries a day can relieve a gout attack in a few days. But as too much fruit consumption or the use of fructose is thought to aggravate some types of gout it may be better to use cherry extract capsules."

It's important to learn that too much fruit can aggravate some types of gout because fruit is half fructose. So I decided to look at more sources. But the article is excellent because it informed me how cherries halt the pain of arthritis and gout by lowering uric acid levels. It's the anthocyanins which are the red pigments in cherries that reduce inflammation. And arthritis begins with inflammation.

The SteadyHealth.com site, notes that cherry juice concentrate (made of tart cherries) "contains anthocyanins and antioxidants in tart cherries that are ten times stronger than aspirin or ibuprofen." The article states that cherry juice concentrate "can reduce headaches, gout, pain of arthritis, chance of kidney stones, tooth decay, and gallbladder ailments."

The article at the site mentions... "It can even reduce cholesterol and decrease the chance of heart attack by 30%." It is also believed that..."Cherry Juice Concentrate lowers chances of cancer by 50%." The article also says... "to be able to work, this product needs to be taken daily."

The recommended dose is "two spoons of Cherry Juice Concentrate mixed with eight ounces of beverage is a direction for use of this product." But the article did not specify whether the two spoons are teaspoons or tablespoons. Ads for black cherry juice and concentrate appear at the bottom of the site. You'd need to look for further research on cherries and health benefits from studies in various scientific or medical journals.

Cherry juice compared to blueberry, pomegranate, grape, or tropical/exotic juices

The CherryPharm site does have a table comparing cherry juice (not concentrate) to other juices such as blueberry, pomegranate, grape, and exotic juices. Their table shows that (with the 50 cherries per juice bottle) the CherryPharm bottled cherry juice contains more antioxidant 'Orac' and anthocyanins per eight once bottle than any of the bottled juices, including other cherry juices compared.

On their "Medical Experts Agree" link, the statement notes, "CherryPharm is currently in use by elite athletes and pro teams around the world. Four of the top 10 ranked NCAA D-1 football teams, including the national champions, drank CherryPharm during the 2008-2009 season."

See the Nutrition & Food Science journal site. and read the article based on the study, titled: Effects of sour cherry juice on blood glucose and some cardiovascular risk factors improvements in diabetic women: A pilot study, (pp. 355-360). Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, by authors, Asal Ataie-Jafari, Saeed Hosseini, Farzaneh Karimi, and Mohammad Pajouhi, in the Nutrition & Food Science journal, year: 2008, volume: 38, issue 4.

The only obstacle is that to see the article in its entirety online, you have to buy the article from the journal. But you can look at the findings of the study and the method used at the article's link by clicking here. To read the article for free in print, your local university library might have a copy for you to read in the library if you telephone them.

There's also inter-library loan for various journal studies articles from university libraries to your public library branch. But for general consumer research purposes, reading the findings and method in abstract form is sufficient to see whether the cherries helped the patients.

You have to tell health news readers in plain language what beta cells in a lab dish is supposed to reveal about how cherries affect the pancreas in a good way in your study. That's why news articles are read more than journal articles. People want to hear the findings: does it work or not? Yes. It works...for me. But how does it work for your individual situation and genes?

Sour cherry juice and reductions in body weight studied

The journal article's purpose investigated "whether concentrated sour cherry juice (CSCJ) beneficially alters serum glucose and some cardiovascular risk factors in diabetes type 2 subjects." What the study found revealed explained that after six weeks' consumption of CSCJ, researchers found the participants showed significant reductions in body weight.

The symbols are the reason why so many news articles leave out such details. But the value of the study and article found that "Based on the results of this study, consuming 40?g/day of CSCJ decreases body weight, blood pressure and HbA1c in diabetes type 2 women after 6 weeks and improves blood lipids in diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia." In news articles, media doesn't always want to use the word, 'lipid' because some readers would have to look up the meaning. So it's easier to write 'fats' instead of 'lipids.'

That may be the reason why so many news articles say "based on a report" instead of citing the report's details in limited media space available. The big picture is drinking cherry juice in moderation did lower blood pressure, weight, improved blood fats and cholesterol, and helped diabetic patients with too much fat in their bloodstream. For those looking for pain relief, yes, cherries and cherry juice did get rid of my back pain and stiffness. And it tastes great put in a blender with a handful of almonds.

UC Davis study on apples to lower risk factors of heart disease

Researchers at UC Davis School of Medicine back in February 2001 determined that drinking apple juice and eating apples has a beneficial effect on risk factors for heart disease. Results of the pioneering clinical study appear in the winter 2001 edition of Journal of Medicinal Food. Similar studies apply to cherry juice also.

The 2001study reported that compounds in apples and apple juice act in much the same way that red wine and tea do to slow one of the processes that lead to heart disease. See the article, "UC Davis Study Finds Heart Benefits From Apples & Juice," published in Science Daily, Feb. 26, 2001. These compounds act as antioxidants to delay the break down of LDL or "bad" cholesterol. When LDL oxidizes, or deteriorates in the blood, plaque accumulates along the walls of the coronary artery and causes atherosclerosis.

Foods that worsen pain

Some doctors say that the nightshade vegetables may worsen arthritis pain for some. These are potatoes, tomatoes, bell pepper, and any other vegetable or fruit of the "deadly nightshade variety or even oranges sometimes are blamed on worsening the pain of arthritis. But according to Dr. Mehmet Oz's answer to this question at the Share Care site, "there's no medical journal evidence that any particular food or group of food affects osteoarthritis one way or another."

Plenty of people complain that one food or another worsens pain. Most of the studies on pain and food were not done on osteoarthritis but instead on rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This is a different disease not related to osteo arthritis (OA).

For osteoarthritis, some doctors suggest fish oil or krill oil. Since people have different health conditions, it's wise to talk to a health professional as to whether fish oil will help your individual issues with osteoarthritis. There are studies showing a diet high in omega 3 fatty acids did improve some participants with osteoarthritis in various research. For example, check out the research mentioned in the articles, Cod liver oil cuts arthritis pain without the side-effects of painkillers and Fish Oil For Arthritis Pain Relief.

As far as rheumatoid arthritis, see the NY Times article, Can Fish Oil Supplements Help Ease Joint Pain? - NYTimes.com. Regarding foods that may worsen pain, and the nightshade vegetables, also check out the book, Pain Free in 6 Weeks by Sherry A. Rogers, M.D. If you're looking for more foods with health effects, check out the site, "Foods That Reduce Testosterone | Livestrong.com." One food that may reduce testosterone is rice, according to Dr. Neal Barnard in his book, Foods That Fight Pain: Revolutionary New Strategies for Maximum Pain Relief.