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Stem cell therapy in tissue regeneration

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The latest technology in tissue regeneration is stem cell therapy. This technology will forever change the medical field and outcomes of treating disease.

A stem cell is a cell that has the potential to regenerate tissue over a lifetime. Properties of stem cells are assessed for their ability to differentiate and self-renew. There are different origins of stem cells.

Embryonic

Embryonic stem cell lines are cultures of cells derived from the blastocyst or earlier stage embryos. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and give rise during development to all derivatives of the three primary germ layers, the ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm. Embryonic stem cells (pluripotent) have the potential to differentiate into each of the more than 200 cell types of the human body. Once past embryonic development, pluripotent stem cells can only develop into certain cell types.

Three Primary Germ Layers Are:
Ectoderm: Nervous System, Skin
Endoderm: Entire Gut, Lungs
Mesoderm: Muscle, Bone, Blood

Fetal
The primitive stem cells located in the organs of fetuses are referred to as fetal stem cells. There are two types of stem cells that are referred to as fetal stem cells.

Fetal proper stem cells come from the tissue of the fetus proper, and have a high level of division and are multipotent. Fetal multipotent stem cells have high proliferation, and are capable of multilineage differentiation (develop multiple tissue types). Fetal multipotent stem cells have shown to exert strong immunomodulatory effects. Extraembryonic fetal stem cells come from extraembryonic membranes, and are generally not distinguished from adult stem cells. These stem cells are acquired after birth, and have a high level of cell division, and are pluripotent.

Adult Stem Cells

An adult stem cell is a specialized cell found in a tissue or organ that can renew itself, and can multiply into specialized cell types of that tissue or organ. The primary role of adult stem cells in a living organism is to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found. Stem cells play an important role in the early stages of wound repair and tissue regeneration. Scientists have found adult stem cells in many more tissues than they once thought, but the origin of adult stem cells still remains unknown.

Adult Stem Cells; The Latest in Human Tissue Engineering in Dermatology

Tissue regeneration using topical adult stem cells is the latest technology and advances in human tissue engineering, and in dermatology. Tissue regenerating companies are using this technology in wound healing, tissue repair, and cutaneous regeneration.

Enhanced Cell Signaling; Accelerating Wound Healing

The latest technology in human tissue engineering, uses a bilayered cellular matrix in which human epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts are cultured in two separate layers into a Type I bovine collagen sponge. Donor dermal fibroblasts are cultured on and within the porous sponge side of the collagen matrix, while keratinocytes from the same donor are cultured on the coated, non-porous side of the collagen matrix. The sponge serves as an absorbable biocompatible matrix that provides a favorable environment for host cell migration. This technology enhances the ability of each cell type to have cell signaling abilities, in which the target cell is near the signal releasing cell. This cell signaling ability allows for cytokine and growth factor expression, and accelerated wound healing. Applications in medicine include treatment of acute surgical excisions, diabetic foot ulcers, venous leg ulcers, epidermolysis bullosa, and in donor sites treating burn victims undergoing excision and autografting. This technological development is one of many applications that use the latest in adult stem cell therapy in regenerative medicine, which has been developed by Forticell Bioscience.

Advantages and Disadvantages in Regenerative Therapy

In regenerative therapy, there are advantages and disadvantages of human embryonic and adult stem cells. Adult and embryonic stem cells differ in the number and type of differentiated cells that they can become. Adult stem cell are generally limited to differentiating into different cell types of their tissue or origin, whereas embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, and can become all cell types of the body.

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells; Genetically Reprogrammed Adult Stem Cells

Induced pluripotent stem cells are adult cells that have been genetically reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell like state, by being forced to express genes and factors important for maintaining the defining properties of embryonic stem cells. Induced pluripotent stem cells can reprogram cells whose developmental fates had be previously assumed to be determined.

Reprogramming Stem Cell Gene Expression in Human Skin Fibroblasts

Researchers have discovered a way to reprogram existing stem cell genes in human skin fibroblasts. In clinical studies, lowering the amount of atmospheric oxygen cells were exposed to, and adding the protein called fibroblast growth factor 2, once thought to be dormant stem cells genes, were activated and began to express proteins. Those proteins then migrated back into the nucleus of the skin cells, exactly as would occur in induced pluripotent stem cells. When proteins migrate back into the nucleus of a cell, is the beginning of reprogramming cell renewal. In the study, it was found that pluripotent stem cell genes OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG were not completely dormant, but were acting as cell messengers. The messages of the once thought dormant stem cell genes, were not being translated into the proteins that were responsible for making skin cells pluripotent. The study suggests that there is a natural mechanism in human fibroblasts regulating stem cell gene expression.

The Benefits of Live Cell Therapy in Dermatology

Stem cells have the ability to repair and heal the skin, and are currently used in soft tissue augmentation and to treat facial aging. Cosmeceuticals containing live cell therapy can be of benefit to repair the skin post-operative cosmetic procedures, and accelerate the healing process. Live cell therapy is now studied and is the latest technology in wound repair is using human growth factors and live cells for tissue regeneration. The use of stem cell technology is the latest breakthrough in regenerative and cosmetic medicine, and can improve the quality of human life.

Regenerative Medicine

Once thought unimaginable, regenerative medicine accelerates the healing process to fully restore the health of damaged tissues and organs. These innovative medical therapies are showing great promise over traditional medical treatments, and are the latest advancement to enhance clinical outcomes in aesthetic medicine post operative cosmetic procedures.

Anti-Aging Medicine

In anti-aging medicine, autologous preparations use the patient's own adult stem cells for facial enhancement. The autologous preparation is injected just under the skin, discharging a protein which activates new cells to reproduce, leading to a stronger collagen support structure.

Linda Gulla is a physician endorsed Master Esthetician and currently offers self study certification in cosmetic dermatology as well as develops continuing education and continuing medical education for licensed professionals.

She can be reached at: medicalaestheticresources@gmail.com.

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