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South Sudans Internal Relations

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Productive talks are the byword for South Sudan as they move towards civil war. South Sudan's President Salva Kiir entertained pre-negotiations on Dec. 20 with African mediators to look into possibilities of preventing (has been going on for a week) an ethnic civil war. South Sudans border countries are on edge forcing Ugandian military to 1) evacuate their citizens, and 2) secure the capital (50 miles from Uganda's border).

A Law school scholar that is studying also international relations has been reviewing the communications coming out of the South Sudan. He is looking into insights to provide alternate solutions to the civil war conflict.

The former vice president Reik Machar was accused by Kiir (ethnic group member) of attempting a coup by force. Hundreds have been killed was the report by U.N. staff, because of the fighting in Juba. The Southern Sudan saw 3 peacekeepers killed. President Kiir is ready for communications. French radio was told by the vice president (Machar) that with military action Kiir can be forced out, if he doesn't quit first. The civil war is driven not only by ethnic purities, but political rivals.

The U.N. peacekeeping base in the Jonglei state saw armed youth by the thousands from another ethnic group kill at least 11 people from the ethnic Dinka group as well as 2 Indian peacekeepers. Still trying to verify the death toll earlier reports were 20 people killed, along with 54 Dinka in the fray. Thirty five people were being sheltered at the U.N. bases across the country.

Resources vital to thhe fledgling nations economy is oil where the fighting has spread (dependant on foreign workers). Because of the spillover of fighting to the oilfields; 1) 200 oil workers are seeking refuge at a U.N. base on Dec. 19, 2) 32 workers were flown out by China Petroleum Corp to Juba. Not knowing which airfields that are controlled by the rebels the plane providers are reluctant to land at remote airstrips.

Kenya, Uganda, Djibouti, and Somali, as well as African Union and United Nations representatives make up the mediation teams, which created a "first peace initiative" since the fighting erupted. A productive meeting was announced by Ethiopian Foreign Minister Tedros Adhanom (leads the African delegation) resulting in further negotiations.

The attempted coup in the South Sudan causes concern for the border states fearing instability in the region. It retards the progress towards the creation of a stable state in the country which declared it's independance from Sudan in 2011 despite decades of war. Hundreds of Ugandian Special Forces troops left for Juba led by the son of President Museventi's son. Some traveling by plane and others by road will be primarily be involved in securing the capital, not participating in skirmishes between Kiir and Machar.

Forty five military personnel sent by U.S. President Obama have been sent to protect the embassy and it's employees. Their mission is to remain in the South Sudan to

maintian the security situation until it is at an acceptable level (president's letter to congress).

Border crossings with Uganda and Kenya have forced the landlocked country to a trade halt. Instability resulted caused by the military coup is being classified in certain regions as a racial ethnic war. Foreign Minister Barnaba Marial Benjamin was referred as saying, "We are not trying to encourage what happened in Rwanda" (1994 genocide). Fueling fears of an all out ethnic war because of the clashes in Bor Town where Nuer in 1991 massacred Dinka; the Nuer commander and Machar ally Peter Gadet, now is in control is exercising similar tactics.

With the mounting of political tensions between Kiir and Machar, growing public frustration about slowing development is in the forefront. The vice president Machar accusing Kiir of acting like a dictator forces him to run for president. Machar was quoted as stating, "I think the people will despose him, in particular, influential people in the army". Kiir has branded the stakes by accusing his rivals of reviving past rivalries within the ranks of the ruling SPLM party that led to bloodshed in 1991. But analysts said he had raised the stakes by branding initial clashes a coup attempt.

Some suggestions on the table are; 1) mediators should be communicating with both Kiir and Machar or communicating with different tribal groups on their suggestions for providing stability for their country instead of only talking to the president and vice president (tribal group representatives appointed by their respective groups) forming an internal oversight committee, 2) provide provisions for equal representation from each ethnic group within their country, 3) follow the American form of Democracy in setting up the infrastructure for their country, have the world community intercede, 5) U.S. with it's drone capability needs to provide surveillance around the clock to protect their interests, and provide humanitarian efforts and 6) prepare a transitional government structure taking into account tribal differences, economics, and trade.

The international community welcomes South Sudan into the world community and is looking forward to trade with the nation once the stability is secured.



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