This drink is directly derived from the Scarlett O' Hara of Gone with the Wind. There was a sequel novel published in 1991 called "Scarlett", but this drink is much older than this. This drink is named after the woman named "Scarlett O Hara" in Gone with the Wind, the role has been played by the greatest actresses in history such as Lucille Ball and Katharine Hepburn.
Here is an early printing of this drink:
House beautiful: Volume 95, Part 1 in 1953
"Another red job for decoration inside and out is a punchy version of a Scarlett O'Hara. using Southern Comfort for the take-off. Scarlett O'Hara Punch 16 ounces Southern Comfort 2 quarts cranberry juice 3 ounces fresh lime juice"
This drink also appears in these publications:
House & garden: Volume 133 in 1968
"Southern Comfort. Scarlett O'Hara"
Joy of cooking - Page 52 by Irma von Starkloff Rombauer, Marion Rombauer Becker in 1975
"SCARLETT O'HARA Shake well with 3 cup cracked ice: 4 jiggers Southern Comfort 3 jiggers cranberry juice 1 jigger lime juice Strain into chilled glasses and serve with a twist of lime peel."
This drink was created by Southern Comfort, however it is unclear exactly when. Southern Comfort ran an extensive advertising campaign from 1952 - 1970 and still advertise this drink today.
This drink dates between 1944 - 1951 and contained at least as of then:
Shake these ingredients:
Fresh Lime Juice
Strain into an ice filled highball glass.