The San Jacinto Battlegrounds are located just outside of La Porte, TX, which is just minutes from Houston and not far from the beaches in Galveston. It is a 1200 acre historical site and a national landmark, which consists of the actual Battlegrounds, the San Jacinto Monument, and the Battleship Texas.
The battleground is the site where Texas won its independence from Mexico. The Texas troops were under the command of General Sam Houston. General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna and his Mexican army were defeated on April 21, 1836.
In the events leading up to this final battle, General Santa Anna’s army had already had skirmishes with the Texas Militia in Gonzales and Goliad. In a later battle near Goliad, called the Battle of Coleto, Texas soldiers surrendered and all 342 were executed by Santa Anna. In San Antonio, the Alamo fell to the Mexican Army and every last Texas soldier was killed in battle. This prompted the Texas army to use the slogans, “Remember Goliad” and “Remember the Alamo” during the Battle for San Jacinto.
The chart below shows the battles for Texas independence.
Key: T=Texas Victory, M=Mexican Victory
Reference: Wikipedia, List of Texas Revolution Battles
October 2, 1835
This battle resulted in the first casualties of the Texas Revolution. One Mexican soldier killed
October 10, 1835
Texians captured Presidio La Bahia, blocking the Mexican Army in Texas from accessing the primary Texas port of Copano. One Texian was wounded, and estimates of Mexican casualties range from one to three soldiers killed and from three to seven wounded.
November 4–5, 1835
Texians captured and destroyed Fort Lipantitlán. Most of the Mexican soldiers retreated to Matamoros. One Texian was wounded, and 3–5 Mexican soldiers were killed, with an additional 14–17 Mexican soldiers wounded.
October 28, 1835
In the last offensive ordered by General Martin Perfecto de Cos during the Texas Revolution, Mexican soldiers surprised a Texian force camped near Mission Concepción. The Texians repulsed several attacks with what historian Alwyn Barr described as "able leadership, a strong position, and greater firepower". One Texian was injured, and Richard Andrews became the first Texian soldier to die in battle. Between 14 and 76 Mexican soldiers were killed. Historian Stephen Hardin believes that "the relative ease of the victory at Concepción instilled in the Texians a reliance on their long rifles and a contempt for their enemies", which may have led to the later Texian defeat at Coleto.
San Antonio de Bexar
November 26, 1835
Texans attack a large Mexican army pack train. 4 Texans wounded and 17 Mexican casualties. Resulted in the capture of horses and hay (grass).
San Antonio de Bexara six-week siege, Texans attacked Bexar and fought from house to house for five days. After Cos surrendered, all Mexican troops in Texas were forced to retreat beyond the Rio Grande, leaving the Texans in military control. 150 Mexicans killed or wounded and 35 Texians killed or wounded.
February 27, 1836
This was the first battle of the Goliad Campaign. The Johnson-Grant venture, the first battle of the Texas Revolution in which the Mexican Army was the victor. From the Johnson forces, 20 Texans killed, 32 captured and 1 Mexican loss, 4 wounded. Johnson and 4 others escaped after capture and proceeded to Goliad. Johnson would survive the Texas Revolution.
March 2, 1836
Second battle of the Goliad Campaign. Of 27 men of the Grant and Morris forces from the Johnson-Grant venture-12/15 killed; 6 captured and imprisoned at Matamoros; Six escaped, of whom five were killed at Goliad Massacre
San Antonio de Bexar
February 23 –
March 6, 1836
Mexican President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna personally oversaw the siege of the Alamo and the subsequent battle, where almost all 189-250 Texan defenders were killed. 600 Mexicans killed or wounded. Anger over Santa Anna's lack of mercy led many Texian settlers to join the Texan Army. (This battle is considered one of the most famous battles in American history and is the inspiration for dozens of movies and books)
March 14, 1836
Third battle of the Goliad Campaign. Texans inflicted heavy casualties, but split their forces and retreated, ending in capture. About 50 Texans killed and 98 captured with some later executions, 29 spared as laborers, survivors sent to Goliad and possibly 80-100 Mexican casualties with 50 wounded.
March 19–20, 1836
Final battle of the Goliad Campaign. In an attempt to rendezvous with other Texian forces, the southernmost wing of Texian army brazenly departs their heavily fortified location in the midst of oppositional forces. A battle ensues with 10 Texans killed, 60 wounded and 200 Mexicans killed or wounded. After the second day of fighting, a Texian surrender is agreed upon. Approximately 342 of the captured Texans were not pardoned but were executed on March 27 in the Goliad Massacre with 20 spared and 28 escaped. Anger over Santa Anna's lack of mercy led many future Texan settlers to join the Texan Army.
near modern La Porte, Texas
April 21, 1836
After an 18-minute battle, Texans routed Santa Anna's forces, eventually taking Santa Anna prisoner. This was the last battle of the Texas Revolution. 630 Mexicans killed, 208 wounded, 730 captured and 9 Texians killed, 30 wounded.
The San Jacinto Monument stands as a memorial to the Texans who fought and died during the Texas Revolution. Inside the monument is a Museum of History and an elevator to the top of the observation area 489 feet above ground. Around the area are granite markers which show the encampments of the Texas and Mexican Armies, as well as strategic battle locations.
Take a stroll to the 1210 foot long marsh trail and boardwalk and view the native prairie, tidal marsh and bottomland forest as it appeared to be in 1836 at the time of the battle. From several observation locations throughout this walk, you will be able to see birds and water fowl native to the area as well as, on some occassions, otter, beaver, Ferrell hogs, and other native Texas wildlife. Also in the area are native Texas plants, making it a nature photographer’s dream location or you can sit on the banks of the Houston Ship Channel and watch the big ships cruise by.