How can a young or beginning farmer afford land, equipment, seed and soil amendments or livestock and feed? Jim Booth, Farm Manager of Aquidneck Farms, runs a sustainable, economically viable livestock farm. “Livestock farming takes a lot of land,” Booth said. “This 12-year-old business couldn’t exist without conserved land.” He spoke highly of his experience working with Aquidneck Land Trust. RI has the most expensive land in the whole country according to the last USDA Agricultural census.
Aquidneck Farms operation supports three full-time farmers in Portsmouth, RI. Booth admits the economic downturn has affected the farm. “We work harder each year to maintain the same income,” said Booth. “We earned the same at five farmers markets this year that we used to make at just one market a few summers ago.”
Aquidneck Farms raise 180 grass-fed beef cattle and 1,200 pastured poultry on nearly 350 acres of conserved land including 120 acres of “improved” pasture. Most cattle are born on the farm, raised on their mother’s milk and weaned on lush legume pastures. In 2012, 43 steers were processed throughout 2012, up from 38 steers in 2011. Twenty percent of the heifers were retained for breeding.
Rotational grazing protects soil fertility, improves pasture quality and reduces disease pressures. Each winter, high quality, Aquidneck Farms-raised hay and grass silage keep animals growing 1 to 1 1/2 pounds per day. Cattle will not be fed grains, ever. This feeding program works so well, cattle reach market weight in just 585 days.
The farm started with 12 Herefords with a 30-month cycle. Booth admits that switching to Black Angus Beef was an “unexpectedly brilliant idea”. These animals reach market weight on grass in just 22 months. The farm also benefits from the American Angus Association’s national marketing campaigns.
Soils & Fertility
Annual soil tests of each pasture include macro and micronutrient levels. Booth recommends working with Jon Parker of South Coast Agri Services (formerly Crop Services/Field Works) who collects soil and hay samples for testing at UVM Extension Labs. Parker applies minerals or amendments only as soil and hay tests indicate. Contact Jon at South Coast Agri Services via e-mail or call (774) 263-0017.
Hay & Compost
Aquidneck Farms make high quality hay and grass silage. The farm uses about 1600 4x4 round bales per year fed at a rate of one dry to two wet bales. Fresh hay is baled within eight hours of cutting for maximum protein retention. The bales are bagged within a week. Booth admits the farm is fortunate to have amazing soils to work with. Aquidneck Island is a glacial moraine with well-drained, high mineral soils. Farms that manage organic matter have impressive fertility and yields with high-quality crops.
The farm’s compost operation began in 2009 to fund additional staff and as a pasture fertilizer source. Horse manure and bedding from nearby stables are blended with the farm’s manure from winter holding areas. Surplus compost is sold to local farms and home gardeners.
Sustainable - not Certified Organic
While the farm treats land and livestock organically, the farm owner and staff have chosen not to seek organic certification. Thriving animals are selected for breeding thus continually improving the farm’s local adaptation.
Hormones or prophylactic antibiotics are never added to feed. Pesticides are avoided and pastures are fertilized with cattle and chicken manure as well as farm-made compost.
Because Aquidneck Farms never used feed grains, 2012’s disastrous drought had no economic impact.
Deliberate soil enrichment has improved hay and forage quality each year. Rotational grazing and adequate space for livestock has reduced disease and stress. There has been less than one percept animal loss annually. (Coyote and one stillbirth)
Full Circle Recycling of Johnston, RI will recycle plastic bale covers and round barn poly covers. (401- 464-5996) These plastics will be turned into landscape pavers.
Poultry & Eggs
Aquidneck Farms raise pastured poultry and sell 1200 broilers and countless eggs at local farmers markets and from their farm store. Like Joel Salatin of Polyface Farm, portable chicken tractors are used during the growing season. Chicks spend their first few weeks in a warm brooding room within the cattle barn. The “tractors” rotate through pastures behind cows to quickly break up cow paddies, add fertilizers, reduce flies and break parasite and disease cycles. Daily movement ensures fresh forage and poultry favorites: bugs and insect eggs. Chickens have fresh air and water, natural light, space for exercise and protection from predators - mainly hawks and coyotes. Chickens receive some grain. Their feed is not medicated.
History & Background
The farm was a country estate renowned for prizewinning Jersey dairy cattle and Hereford beef. The farm declined upon the owner’s death and eventually became a turf farm. In 2003, Farmscapes, LLC. purchased the farm and has operated as Aquidneck Farms ever since. Their grass-fed beef has been sold at local Farmers Markets since 2009.
Aquidneck Farms’ Farm Management Plan was approved by the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS). All farm practices have been reviewed and endorsed by the RI Department of Environmental Management (RI DEM), Division of Agriculture and the Aquidneck Land Trust.
Aquidneck Farms beef and chickens are cryo-wrapped and sold frozen. Meats are available at 20 restaurants across southern New England. Chefs order online for delivery twice a week through Farm Fresh Rhode Island’s Market Mobile.
Online orders can be picked up at farmers markets or the farm store. Orders over $350 can be delivered on weekdays within 45 miles for a small fee. Meats can be ordered online.
Learn more here, email Jim Booth, Farm Manager, James Booth, Markets and Distribution Manager or Michael Victor, Livestock Manager. Call the farm store at 401-849-0337 or visit on Friday afternoons from 1 to 5 p.m. at 333 Wapping Road in Portsmouth, RI.
A similar story ran in the February 11, 2013 New England edition of Country Folks.