Since Ken Johnson has provided some useful tidbits, it seemed helpful to augment the essays linked above with the following information. This will come from Johnson’s book Ancient Church Fathers which we reviewed here.
The following is from Clement of Alexandria circa 177 AD:
Stromata 3.6 - Forced celibacy is wrong.
Stromata 3.7 - Peter, Paul, Philip, and others were married.
Stromata 3.13 - Clergy must be married once, but can never remarry.
Stromata 3.16 - Bishops should be married.
The following is from Tertullian circa 207 AD:
Against Marcion 1.29 - Nor do we prescribe celibacy as a rule, but only recommend it.
The following is from Eusebius circa 325 AD:
Ecclesiastical History 2:17 - The Egyptian Therapeutae [a Gnostic sect] had occultic practices and patterned themselves after the priests and priestesses of the Greeks. They drink no wine, eat no meat, and are celibate.
Ken Johnson notes that “In the ancient church, the vicar or Christ referred to the Holy Spirit, not any man or office.”
The following is from Tertullian circa 200 AD:
Veiling of Virgins 1 - The vicar of our Lord is the Holy Spirit.
Prescription Against Heretics 28 - The Holy Spirit has no such respect for any one church so to lead only it into truth...has the steward or God, the vicar of Christ, gone astray?
Here he is clearly sarcastically referencing the Roman Catholic church.
You can listen to a lecture on this issue at Roman Catholicism: Was Peter the first Pope?
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