Daniel Grumiller from the Vienna University of Technology and colleagues from Harvard and MIT in the United States and the University of Edinburgh in Britain presented the first workable mathematical model that could explain the origin of the universe without the present Big Bang concept in the Dec. 10, 2013, edition of the journal Physical Review Letters.
Using this concept, the researchers have calculated the temperature and the amount of motion necessary for space and time to begin to become a universe or universes. There is a specific temperature at which conceptually flat space and time become an expanding universe or set of universes.
In order for the concept to work, the universes must rotate at a very slow speed. Astronomers know that the Milky Way and other universes rotate at a very slow speed.
The phase-transition model is not proposed as a replacement for the Big Bang concept but as a probable alternative based on mathematics and observable astronomical phenomena.