"Woe to shepherds destroying, And scattering the flock of My pasture, says Yahweh"
One could translate "shepherds" here "pastors." Nevertheless, religious leaders are not primarily in mind here (though they are likewise condemned throughout this chapter; all three major offices in God's Old Covenant economy, prophet, priest and king), but rather, those occupying positions in the civil magistrate. While it is likely the civil rulers primarily in view here, it likely includes false prophets (as Jeremiah explicitly does include them later on in this chapter) as well. Jeremiah 23 constitutes the end of Jeremiah 21-23 as a literary unit in which the four rulers, Shallum, Jehoiakim, Jeconiah, and Zedekiah(Ezek. 34:2) are denounced as setting bad examples for Yahweh's pasture, the Israelites, leading them into sin and idolatry.
v. 2 - This "scattering" likely has reference both to the state of spiritual ruin into which the Israelites have fallen because of the poor government of the civil and religious authorities, and also to the scattering of the Israelites from the land because of this, according to God's judgment. The figurative expressions applied to the Israelites has the idea of sheep being torn to pieces by wild animals when they are abandoned by their shepherds.
v. 3 - This restoration occurred during the ministries of Zerubbabel, Ezra, Nehemiah and the Maccabees. These restorations foreshadowed the congregation of Jews and Gentiles with the first advent of Christ, and also foreshadows the confirmation of all of the elect sheep in their glory. The ministries of Ezra, Nehemiah and Zerubabbel foreshadow the time when this will happen no more.
v. 5 - This foreshadows the period during Christ's first advent("The Father has committed all judgment unto the Son"(Jhn. 5:22)) and also to Christ's ascension, resurrection and position upon the Davidic throne:
Matthew 2:2 and asked, "Where is the one who has been born king of the Jews? We saw his star in the east and have come to worship him."
Luke 1:32 He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High. The Lord God will give him the throne of his father David,
Luke 1:33 and he will reign over the house of Jacob forever; his kingdom will never end."