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How gamma tocopherol, tocotrienols protect against cognitive impairment

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When it comes to the health effects of parts of natural vitamin E, higher serum levels of gamma tocopherol, beta tocotrienol, and total tocotrienols were each associated with a significantly lower risk of being cognitively impaired, say recent studies. You may wish to check out the article, "Gamma Tocopherol, Tocotrienols Protect Against Cognitive Impairment," published on page 19 in the April 2014 issue of Life Extension magazine.

Natural vitamin E includes eight chemically distinct molecules: alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherols and alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienols. More than 95% of all studies on vitamin E are directed toward the specific study of alpha-tocopherol. The other forms of natural vitamin E remain poorly understood, but now scientists are taking a closer look at what the gamma tocopherol part of vitamin E can do regarding health effects, according to the abstract of a recent study, "Tocotrienols: the emerging face of natural vitamin E."

In the Life Extension magazine article, "Gamma Tocopherol, Tocotrienols Protect Against Cognitive Impairment," the author describes a study published in the journal Experimental Gerontology on the protective effect of gamma tocopherol, beta tocopherol, and total tocotrienols which are parts of natural vitamin E, against the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease or, as the magazine notes, mild cognitive impairment. The study referred to also is mentioned in a January 7, 2014 news release, "Several forms of vitamin E protect against memory disorders."

Several forms of vitamin E protect against memory disorders, say a recent study, "Serum levels of vitamin E forms and risk of cognitive impairment in a Finnish cohort of older adults," published online in the journal Experimental Gerontology, Volume 48, Issue 12, December 2013. Elderly people with high serum vitamin E levels are less likely to suffer from memory disorders than their peers with lower levels, according to that study. Vitamin E includes eight natural antioxidant compounds (four tocopherols and four tocotrienols), but α-tocopherol has been the main focus of investigation in studies of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Now a study looks at the gamma part of natural vitamin E.

Elevated levels of tocopherol and tocotrienol forms are associated with reduced risk of cognitive impairment in older adults

The association is modulated by concurrent cholesterol concentration. Various vitamin E forms might play a role in cognitive impairment, and their evaluation can provide a more accurate measure of vitamin E status in humans. Researchers investigated the association between serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols, markers of vitamin E oxidative/nitrosative damage and the incidence of cognitive impairment in a population-based study.

The association between baseline serum vitamin E and cognitive impairment was analyzed with multiple logistic regression after adjusting for several confounders. Analyses of absolute serum levels of vitamin E showed lower risk of cognitive impairment in subjects with higher levels of γ-tocopherol, β-tocotrienol, and total tocotrienols.

The recent trial found a deceleration in functional decline among Alzheimer's disease patients given vitamin E, a study described in the December 2013 issue of the journal Experimental Gerontology, uncovered a protective effect for higher levels of the vitamin E subfractions gamma tocopherol, beta tocotrienol and total tocotrienols against the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment.

According to the researchers, various forms of vitamin E seem to play a role in memory processes. The study was carried out in cooperation between the University of Eastern Finland, the Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare, Karolinska Institutet, and the University of Perugia. Also, you may wish to check out the January 14, 2013 Life Extension magazine article, "Gamma tocopherol, tocotrienols protective against cognitive Impairment." Or see the magazine article, "In The News April 2014 - Life Extension."

Gamma Tocopherol, Tocotrienols Protect Against Cognitive Impairment

The study, according to it's abstract described in Experimental Gerontology, uncovered a protective effect for higher levels of the vitamin E subfractions gamma tocopherol, beta tocotrienol, and total tocotrienols against the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease or mild cognitive impairment. Researchers evaluated the association between serum tocopherol and tocotrienol levels and cognitive impairment in 140 participants in the CAIDE study, which examined Finnish men and women at several time points during midlife and re-examined survivors in 1998 and 2005-2008.

The recent study compared 64 subjects diagnosed at the second re-examination with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer’s disease with 76 cognitively normal participants. Serum samples collected in 1998 were analyzed for tocopherols, tocotrienols, and cholesterol (which may influence serum vitamin E levels). The researchers uncovered a 73% lower risk of cognitive impairment among those whose serum gamma tocopherol to cholesterol ratio was among the middle third of subjects in comparison with those whose ratio was among the lowest third.

Studies investigating the link between vitamin E and memory disorders have usually focused on a single form of vitamin E, namely α-tocopherol, which is also used in vitamin E supplements. However, vitamin E exists in eight different natural forms, tocopherols and tocotrienols, all of which have antioxidant properties

This recently published study includes a sample of 140 over 65-year-old Finnish persons with no memory impairment at the onset of the study. During the eight-year follow-up, it was discovered that higher total serum levels of vitamin E, and higher levels of γ-tocopherol, β-tocotrienol and total tocotrienols in particular, seemed to protect against memory disorders, the study's abstract notes.

According to the researchers, the results show that the entire vitamin E family plays a role in memory processes. Accordingly, measuring the levels of vitamin E from serum is the most reliable way to determine whether they are sufficiently high. The study included part of the more extensive Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) | ARC study, which focuses on the association between the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and memory disorders, explains the study's abstract. Authors of that study are Francesca Mangialasche, Alina Solomon, Ingemar Kåreholt, Babak Hooshmand, Roberta Cecchetti, Laura Fratiglioni, Hilkka Soininen, Tiina Laatikainen, Patrizia Mecocci, and Miia Kivipelto.

Another study, "Long-term use of multivitamins and risk of colorectal adenoma in women," on parts of vitamin E also appears in the British Journal of Cancer, published online January 7, 2014. That study concluded that the researcher team's findings suggest that use of multivitamins is associated with lower risk of colorectal adenoma, even with relatively short duration of use. Or see another article "Tocotrienols: the emerging face of natural vitamin E."

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