Baking for the holidays is fun: all the cookies, breads, and candies. However, running out of an ingredient in the middle of baking is stressful. Use this guide for your holiday baking shopping list to ensure all the ingredients at your fingertips. Use the hints and substitutions to improve your holiday baking results.

• Decide if you are going to make several batches of a recipe.
• Add the number of cups of flour, sugar and butter.
• Add the number of teaspoons of flavoring you will need.

Use this guide to figure out how much to buy

• Flour: one 5 lb bag of flour equals 17 1/2 cups of flour; one pound of flour equals 3 1/2 cups.
• Sugar: one 5 lb bag of sugar equals 11 1/4 cups of sugar; one pound of sugar equals 2 1/4 cups.
• Powdered sugar: one pound of powdered sugar equals 3 1/2 cups of powdered sugar
• Brown sugar: one pound of brown sugar equals 2 1/2 cups of packed brown sugar
• Butter or margarine: one pound (4 sticks) of butter or margarine equals 2 cups
• Lemon: one lemon yields 3 to 4 tablespoons of juice
• Orange: one orange yields 6 to 8 tablespoons of juice
• Graham crackers: 10 graham crackers equals one cup of crumbs
• Whipping cream: one cup of whipping cream equals 2 cups whipped

For calculating liquids:

• 3 teaspoons equal one tablespoon
• 2 tablespoons equals one fluid ounce
• 4 tablespoons equals one-fourth cup
• 16 tablespoons equals one cup

Even the best plans can fail. Here are a few substitutions you can use.

Buttermilk: Add one tablespoon of white vinegar or one tablespoon of lemon juice to 1 cup of milk. Let this stand for about five minutes. It is ready to use when the milk curdles slightly.

Granulated sugar: Use 1 1/3 cups of packed brown sugar

Whipped Cream: one can of evaporated milk equals 3 cups whipped

One ounce of bitter chocolate: 4 tablespoons of cocoa and 2 teaspoons of butter

Flatter than expected; add an additional egg to the next batch. Eggs help baked goods rise and thicken

Drier than expected, add 1 / 4 more butter. Butter adds moisture and texture.

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