The attached Newsy Grab Media video (with Logan Tittle, March 2, 2013) tells us about Google opening up and unveiling the search engine process. Google tells its own story on Inside Search. The search giant covers ("crawls") an awesome 100,000 terabytes during its search of the digital noosphere. Some of this information has been previously dispensed on their Knowledge Graph Carousel. The video breaks down the search process into three steps; searching/indexing, algorithms and anti-spamification (a new word?).
Google goes much further than the video (of course) and the familiar almost all-white web page most people have seen. Google's search engine crawls an astounding 30+ trillion web pages - and that number is growing. That amazing search is covered in their Overview and Crawling + Indexing pages. Even more amazing is the item about Google's "spiders" that view/see web pages and send vital statistics back to the all-important servers at Google. Funny how little we think of Google as really a bunch of servers.
The extremely normal and engaging Matt Cutts tells us (in the Google Crawling Indexing video) that we're not really searching the entirety of the web when using Google. Google's search is comprised of the relationship of links in those web pages, tracing them back and deciphering their importance to the search work. In other words, Google is not about the whole "interweb" but more about the links. The links have, however, now become a target or standard in the new German "link law". We think Google may have left out that last part. That's also the reason we attached a photo to the relatively new Google office in Berlin.
As an aside, nobody likes the "link law" except perhaps for the Bundestag. But some of those links do pay lots of money and that's why Google sends you a few ads along with your search results. Another reason is that links may be "important" to your search - but search engines like Google don't come cheap even though they may be "free". Of course, a search engine is nothing without its search programs and guidelines - some "200 factors" are covered in the 43 pages (and growing?) guidelines for Google Search. Spam is also "weeded out" in the Google Search process. And the growing importance of searching on your mobile device continues to develop.