1. Shifts in society and culture.
Societies experienced rapid changes including industrialization, immigration, high birth rate, education reform and urban growth. This changes stimulated people to try and build a social order, examples of approaches taken include:, standardization and measures and creation of new bureaucratic structures to ensure orderly change.
2. Scientific management
The executive philosophy that climaxes the worker as a well-oiled mechanism and the willpower of the most effectual approaches for performing any work related duty.
They absorbed on scientific management, the decision-making philosophy that highlights the worker as a well-oiled machine and the willpower of the most effective means for execution any in-service task.
3. Ergonomics (through engineering)
A field that combines engineering and psychology and that focuses on understanding and enhancing the safety and efficiency of the human–machine interaction.
Ergonomics was innate during World War II, when the military developed busy with designing planes with wheels that were both efficient and safe. The field of ergonomics is the origin of the term applied psychology, as those who conducted this work during the war were the first to apply the principles of psychological research to the workplace setting.
4. Individual differentiation
The existence of difference among the human beings triggered differentiation in terms of activities done, this includes carrier differences, social lifestyles, living conditions type of food consumed, different religion s and beliefs. This triggered the need for change
5. Measurement and function
With rapid population growth, the spread of industrial revolution, and need for nations to have greater control over lives of their citizens it became even more important to understand one’s self and abilities in relation to other individuals, science, or systematic knowledge, had increasing appeal.
6. Need for experimentation (energy and fatigue)
The establishment of industrial psychology was predated by science work, which shaped psychology, nutrition, and fatigue in the second half of 19th century.