While exercise is good for you in general, one might be surprised what working some key muscles will do for the golf swing. From driver to putter exercising key muscles can make you more consistent.
For putting exercises that create separation between lower body and shoulders will make you a more consistent putter. Most chop exercises such as: half kneeling cable/band chop.
These exercises are a great way to create separation between upper and lower body which is what you need to be a more successful putter. The only movement on a put should be your shoulders around your spine in a pivoting motion. The lower body should remain planted/anchored almost like tree roots.
Lungs and squats: We all hate these exercises, mostly because they are the quickest way to feel the burn. But, these exercises create a solid base for the core of any good golf swing. A solid base will make for a solid pace of swing: dumbbell lunge.
Another key element to improving consistency in ball striking is making sure the joints and muscles associated with the turn are limber and have the best possible range of motion. The thoracic spine area is a major player in a consistent golf swing. Here is a simple exercise you can do to improve mobility in this area. It's also a good exercise of those of us that sit at a computer a good share of the day. A good exercise for limbering up is: thoracic rotation (golfer's stretch).
These three exercises or some variation of can help you obtain a more consistent golf game and hopefully drop a few shots.