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Dark Matter Is Present, But Nobody Knows Content

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The beans have been spilled. Cosmology gets its deserving attention. It’s now realized in all scientific circles, dark energy [2] does exist in our galaxy. Knowing it makes up 80 percent of our universe, the next question is “where is it?”

Per Josh Frieman [Batavia/ Fermi Laboratory/ Director, Dark Energy Survey], the scientific community knows dark matter exists, with new research finding its exact location. Right now, dark matter is in the room with you. It’s more transparent than air, and exists in, and spreads through every part of the galaxy. But it’s not light.

Even all believing scientists hold back from saying what may be in dark matter, and they hesitate to speculate. However, they know something is there, possibly living, and watching. Knowing dark matter makes up the vast majority of the universe, contains very high molecular mass, rarely interacts with other chemistries, is invisible to the normal eye, and generally congregates around galaxy cores where life typically proliferates, points to the same direction that God, souls without bodies, angels, heaven, hell, and demons exist.
And, to concrete the possibilities and chance encounters, all these “entities” have met at some point in history, and may still be clandestinely meeting.

The universe is expanding quickly. In 1998 two teams of astronomers announced evidence the expansion is actually speeding up. When dark matter became dominant about 7 billion years ago, it drove the expansion so fast that dark matter gravity could no longer pull matter together.[1]

Thus with the expansion and structure growth, General Relativity, GR, is offered a possible “smoking gun” for a modified theory of gravity. It also seems obvious light rays from distant galaxies are bent by gravity of dark matter.[11]

In the 1930s, Fritz Zwicky measured the motion of galaxies within the Coma galaxy cluster. Based on simple gravitational calculations, he found their movement unpredicted, unless the cluster contained a lot more mass than he could see. It turns out Zwicky was right about the missing mass. It was there, but could not be seen. He was still correct saying over 80 percent of a cluster’s mass is not in the form of atoms.

Measurement of the cosmic microwave background shows 80 percent of the universe’s total mass is made of dark matter. Some regions—like cosmic voids—have little or none of the dark matter, while the central regions of galaxies are filled with it. Astronomers are trying to estimate how much dark matter is in central regions using careful observation of the motion of stars and gas.

With subsequent measurements astronomers established every spiral galaxy is engulfed by a roughly spherical halo of matter transparent to every form of light. Based on observation, most dark matter is in galactic halos.

As a result, astronomers look to the central part of the Milky Way for indications of dark matter annihilation, which would produce gamma rays. This would occur if dark matter particles are their own antimatter partners, so collisions result in mutual destruction.
With a known collision of two galaxies--scientists called “direct empirical proof”--dark matter became real. In what is called the Bullet Cluster, visible and X-ray light were mapped, and astronomers used “gravitational lensing” (the distortion of light from more distant galaxies by mass within the cluster) for mapping dark matter. Astronomers found the shocked plasma, which represents most of the mass of the Bullet Cluster, was almost entirely between the two clusters. However, dark matter mass is largely concentrated around the galaxies themselves. This gives a clear measurement of the amount of dark matter existing there.

Since the dark matter does not interact much with either itself or normal matter, it passes right through any collision with normal matter without any noticed change. In cosmologists’ analyses, it has been calculated the total ratio of dark matter to ordinary matter in galaxy clusters matches the entire universe.

The Gaia mission is working to produce a three-dimensional map of a billion stars and their motions, providing information on the structure of the Milky Way and its surrounding satellites.

Researchers using data by the orbiting Fermi Telescope likely found direct evidence of dark matter in our own galaxy. Its signal shows excess gamma rays coming from a galactic core, and it appears exactly what was expected from Weakly interacting massive particles - Wikipedia, the free ... dictionary. Weakly Interacting Massive Particle, or WIMPs, are leading all hypothetical particle physics to dark matter. And the universe provides plenty of evidence dark matter exists.

Physicists propose WIMPs only interact through gravitational and weak forces (no electromagnetic or strong nuclear interactions), so they are extremely difficult to detect. As noted before, WIMPs contain a very high mass. These assumptions result in particles which clump together and rarely interact with other particles, and computer simulations from the Big Bang with WIMPs included in the models, result in a universe roughly equivalent to our own.

Even though there is no conclusive evidence of WIMPs, the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment in 2009 announced two pieces of data from their detectors which could have been WIMPs.

With high densities of dark matter, particles can collide, producing a particle which stopped interacting with the known members of the standard model. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope found excesses of gamma rays indicating dark matter collisions at the Milky Way's core.

A group of astronomers have now reanalyzed data obtained by Fermi to look for signs of gamma ray annihilations. Better yet, the frequency of collisions produced a particle which stopped interacting with the known members of the Standard Model. Subsequently, the matter "frozen out" as dark matter would be roughly the amount we expected from current cosmic microwave background.

All the pieces seem to fall neatly into place with this compelling data, containing a statistical significance of over 40 sigma.

Of course, if one does not believe in “dark matter” practically proved by obvious gravitational movements, they likely don’t believe in an “afterlife” either.

[1] [A. Riese et al., Astronom. J. 116, 1009 (1998); S. Perlmuter et al., Astrophys. J. 517, 565 (1999).]
[2] [For a review, see J. Frieman, M.S. Turner, D. Huterer, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 46, 385 (2008).]
[11] [Article by Leon Koopmans & Roger Blandford, PHYSICS TODAY, 6/04, p.45.]
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Kevin Roeten can be reached at roetenks@charter.net.

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