Many vegetable can be grown in pots and containers and the best advice would be to try one or two specimens and see how they do. Growing vegetables in contains keeps the produce easily protected from insects, parasites and diseases because it is grown far from other plant-life, which is great for an urban vegetable grower.
Lettuces loves being grown in pots and planters, and they thrive, mainly because it is very much easier for the gardener to ensure that the lettuces are in the right environment for optimum growth. In general, growing lettuces can be as simple as sprinkling in some seeds, making sure the soil stays moist and getting ready for a healthy feast as they grow to full size. Lettuces in a garden bed can be harder to grow because they can get too much water, causing the plants to rot, or not enough water creating a small bitter-tasting leaf. Planters generally have drainage holes at the bottom which automatically maintain the moisture level of the soil, taking some of the guesswork out of proceedings.
Tomatoes are very adaptable and will grow under most conditions. The bigger varieties need a large deep pot, and a stake to keep them upright once they have reached maturity. Smaller types of tomato, like the cherry tomato can even grow in very small pots, but in general, the larger the pot and the plant, the higher the yield and the longer the growing season will be. Tomatoes must not be allowed to sit in standing water as this can cause the plant to start rotting away.
Squash, cucumbers, eggplants and melons can all be grown in a container on a rooftop or balcony garden but they all need a deep container. A half-barrel or two tires laid one on top of the other is the sort of space needed, so growing these plants will very much depend on the space available to the gardener. Cucumbers and melons, particularly, need space to spread, being ground-creepers that are not easily able to climb. Pay attention to the fruits as they grow and provide them with something dry to sit on to keep from rotting. An eggplant and zucchini squash form a rather attractive bushy plant which can be very decorative, the effect being enhanced when it has a couple of the shiny purple fruit forming.
Carrots are also great grown in a container. If the pot or planter is relatively shallow, it would be advisable to choose ‘dwarf’ varieties which tend to be shorter. Carrots must be sown thickly, with about a 5cm covering layer of soil or compost, and then thinned out once they have sprouted to be sure each carrot has enough room to grow out.