Communications on what have been called LANs (local area networks) and WANs (wide area networks) has become almost a necessity for business to operate everyday. The multiple purpose applications on the Internet require a computer connection to servers that allow multiple users to access different sites at the same time. Some of the information letterhead and letter templates, sales contract information, company procedures and manuals, sensitive financial records, employee records, and company memos. When networks are formed to support a group of users, there special requirements for the hardware and software involved. The basic devices involve a computer with a monitor, keyboard, and mouse. The computer must have the right hardware for connecting to the network. The basic hardware for connecting a net work are the network cards for each computer, cabling that connects to a router or Ethernet station, a server with a cable or higher internet ISP and cabling that links to the reader or Ethernet station. Through an end user network connection, an individual can access the group applications which in the most developed environments are licensed software applications installed on the computer. Users can use these network computers with the business application software to perform work tasks whether they are with customers, clients, or other business correspondence. Some software applications that businesses may use on a network are Windows, iOS, Linux, Andriod, and Novell. Networks can be classified into three types, server-based, peer, and hybrid network. Server-based networks provide front end request by clients to back end services that include file storage, printing, and server information access. The advantages of server-based networks are that they have strong central security , central file storage with easy backup, ability to pool available hardware and software, the ability to share available printers, storage, etc., organize servers that share network resources, security for access to shared resources, easy manageability of user, central organized data organization. The disadvantages of server based networks are expensive dedicated hardware, expensive network operating system, software and licenses, and a knowledgeable network administrator. Peer networks are less controlled networks for users to share disk space, printers, and faxes. On a peer network access to all shared resources requires a password. The advantages of a peer network are; there are no investments in server hardware and software, there is easy setup, no network administrator is required, users can control their resource sharing, there are no server computers to run the operation, and the cost fir the network is inexpensive. The disadvantages of peer networks are the additional loads that computers must maintain when there is resource sharing, the inability of peer computers to handle connections as servers do. The peer computer lacks organization making data hard to find, there are storage files for archiving, peer computers require that users administer their own computers, the security is weak and intrusive, and the lack of management makes the peer networks hard to work with. Examples of peer networks are COBOL mainframe systems. Hybrid networks integrate peer and server-based networks into an environment for public access. An example of this type of network is a college network that provides classroom networks for workgroup tasks and public access to Internet resources and file sharing. The advantages of hybrid communities are their server based networking, all the peer based networking advantages, and the ability of network administrators to perform controlled security based on the need of resources. The disadvantages of the hybrid network are expensive equipment and software requirements and the sources of a network administrator (Hart-Davis, 30-33). There are many companies that are developing their company networks for more organized and innovative usage.
Hart-Davis, & Linda Lee. Networking. San Francisco, CA: Sybex, 2001.
This is part 2 of bachelor study in computer "Corporate Hardware and Software Innovations" written by Timothy Walker BSCS