Scientists at the Vetmeduni Vienna examined the telomere length of captive African grey parrots. They found that the telomere lengths of single parrots were shorter than those housed with a companion parrot, which supports the hypothesis that social stress can interfere with cellular aging and a particular type of DNA repair. But does it apply also to people who live alone or feel loneliness as compared to humans who choose solitary living experiences when possible. The study focused on lonely parrots. But the research results offer a clue: The study suggests that telomeres may provide a biomarker for assessing exposure to social stress.
You can check out the research article, "Social isolation shortens telomeres in African Grey Parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus)" by Aydinonat, D., Penn, D.J., Smith, S., Moodley, Y. Hoelzl, F., Knauer, F. and Schwarzenberger, F. published online on April 4, 2014 in the open access journal PLOS ONE. Loneliness impacts DNA repair, says the new study: The long and the short of telomeres.
In captivity, grey parrots are often kept in social isolation, which can have detrimental effects on their health and wellbeing. So far there have not been any studies on the effects of long term social isolation from conspecifics on cellular aging.
Telomeres shorten with each cell division, and once a critical length is reached, cells are unable to divide further (a stage known as 'replicative senescence'). Although cellular senescence is a useful mechanism to eliminate worn-out cells, it appears to contribute to aging and mortality. Several studies suggest that telomere shortening is accelerated by stress, but until now, no studies have examined the effects of social isolation on telomere shortening.
Using molecular genetics to assess exposure to stress
To test whether social isolation accelerates telomere shortening, Denise Aydinonat, a doctorate student at the Vetmeduni Vienna, conducted a study using DNA samples that she collected from African grey parrots during routine check-ups. African greys are highly social birds, but they are often reared and kept in isolation from other parrots (even though such conditions are illegal in Austria).
She and her collaborators compared the telomere lengths of single birds versus pair-housed individuals with a broad range of ages (from 1 to 45 years). Not surprisingly, the telomere lengths of older birds were shorter compared to younger birds, regardless of their housing. However, the important finding of the study was that single-housed birds had shorter telomeres than pair-housed individuals of the same age group.
Reading signs of stress by erosion of DNA: As far as humans, those who experience high levels of social stress and deprivation have been found to have shorter telomeres
"Studies on humans suggest that people who have experienced high levels of social stress and deprivation have shorter telomeres," says Dustin Penn from the Konrad Lorenz Institute of Ethology at the Vetmeduni Vienna, according to the April 4, 2014 news release, Loneliness impacts DNA repair. "But this study is the first to examine the effects of social isolation on telomere length in any species."
Penn and his team previously conducted experiments on mice, which were the first to show that exposure to crowding stress causes telomere shortening. He points out, according to the news release, that this new finding suggests that both extremes of social conditions affect telomere attrition. However, he also cautions that "further longitudinal studies, in which changes in telomeres of the same individuals over time, are needed to investigate the consequences of stress on telomere shortening and the subsequent effects on health and longevity."
Co-author, Franz Schwarzenberger from the Department of Biomedical Sciences at the Vetmeduni Vienna, points out that their results are exciting because they suggest, "telomere length may be useful as a 'biomarker' that enables to assess an individual's exposure to chronic social stress."
The University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna is the only academic and research institution in Austria that focuses on the veterinary sciences. About 1,200 employees and 2,300 students work on the campus in the north of Vienna which also houses five university clinics and various research sites. Outside of Vienna the university operates Teaching and Research Farms.