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Change efforts: Conclusion

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People need to see and feel the need for change. Otherwise, complacency is hard to overcome. Because Ted’s company is stuck in the past and does not understand that economy of scale can lead to competitive advantage, Ted must show the company an actual customer problem. By integrating external stakeholders into the change process, Ted can show how the change initiative is directly related to sustainable competitive advantage.


Harari, O. (1999). Leading change from the middle. Management Review, 88(2), 29-32.

Kotter, J.P. (1996). Leading change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Kotter, J.P. & Cohen, D. (2002). The heart of change: Real-life stories of how people change their organizations. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Nabokov, V. (1974.). In Lolita: A screenplay, foreward. In R. Andrews, M. Biggs, & M. Seidel, et al. (1996). The Columbia World of Quotations. Search by “complacency.” Number: 41109. Retrieved June 14 2004, from

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