In the early 21 century, Dr. Gary E. Schwartz had published one of his first books attempting to scientifically determine the existence of spirits and survival of consciousness. The book, 'The Afterlife Experiments: Breakthrough Scientific Evidence of Life After Death' (Gary E. Schwartz & William L. Simon; 2002. Reprint ed. 2003),' was criticized by skeptical, scientific researchers. One such critique was Ray Hyman's critical response from the Skeptical Inquirer, 'How Not to Test Mediums: Critiquing the Afterlife Experiments (2003).' Although one can find the criticism to have rightly questioned the thesis of Schwartz's book, it allowed him to advance and clarify his thesis, and other related concerns, by taking critics into account. In 2006, Dr. Schwartz co-authored another book with William L. Simon confronting a related inquiry: 'The G.O.D. Experiments: How Science is Discovering God in Everything, Including Us.' This book was criticized as well for its assertions and applied scientific methodology, which apparently lacked rigor. Many years later, in 2011, Dr. Schwartz authored a book that would closely relate to his peer-reviewed articles on the detection of spirits: 'The Sacred Promise: How Science is Discovering Spirit's Collaboration with Us in Our Daily Lives.' In 2010-2011, he published two peer-reviewed articles in 'Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing':
(1) Possible Application of Silicon Photomultiplier Technology to Detect The Presence of Spirit and Intention: Three Proof-of-Concept Experiments (EXPLORE May/June 2010, Vol. 6, No. 3) doi:10.1016/j.explore.2010.02.003;
(2) Photonic Measurement of Apparent Presence of Spirit Using a Computer Automated System (EXPLORE March/April 2011, Vol. 7, No. 2) doi:10.1016/j.explore.2010.12.002
These two peer-reviewed papers will be over-viewed to see which scientific implications could be extracted out of them while realizing that they are by no means conclusive, but remain suggestive of a possible spiritual reality; and all while keeping in mind that this is on purely scientific grounds.