Islam. Even the term brings up fear and visions of death and destruction especially in those whose faith is not in the saving grace of the Lord Jesus Christ. Unfortunately, many weaker Christians have some of that same fear. Let us separate fact from fiction, and unravel some of the fear caused by a lack of knowledge.
Islam in Arabic means “submission” to the will of one god, Allah. The Arabic root “s-l-m” means “peace”, something that Islamism neither encourages nor enjoys. The former Islam started in the 7th century Saudi Arabia under somewhat mysterious circumstances. However, it can be shown that Islam had its origin long before Muhammad came along.
In the Middle East during the days of Abraham when almost all tribes worshiped the moon god. In Arabia, they called the moon god Al-llah, which eventually became contracted down to Allah. Professor Lambert Dolphin, notes from a class I took on Islam, discusses the Arabian version of the moon god worship.
One will find the first mention of Ur of the Chaldees in the account of Abraham's journey in Genesis 12:1. The spiritual ruler of Ur was the moon-god. This god ultimately becomes the supreme deity of the entire Babylonian empire. The root names of many individuals in Babylon preserves links to the gods of the Babylonian pantheon: Sennacherib, or "Sin ech-erib", or "Sin multiplies his brothers."
The god "Sin" was at the top of the Babylonian pantheon because of Nabu-na'id (Nabonidus) in an effort to make Babylonian religion more acceptable to subjects like the Arabians and Arameans. The Arabians esteemed the moon god, but had difficulty identifying with Marduk, the supreme Babylonian deity associated primarily with the city of Babylon. (“Notes on Islam”).
The original mention of the Ka’aba and the rituals developed around it belonged to the Quaraish tribe from which Muhammad came. As legends go, the Ka’aba celebrated a meteorite stone, and Al-llah became the “Lord of the Ka’aba” and its 360 idols. Since there were 360 idols and the Pilgrims had to revolve around the Ka’aba seven times, Mecca was probably a cosmic metaphor (360 days of the year, seven astral bodies).
The combatant nature of the tribes of Arabia, even though presenting a unified front to outsiders, continued from the time of Abraham right up to the time of Muhammad. As he grew he saw the fight and killings between the tribes, and more than likely decided that there must be a way to unite the tribes, at least among the factions of the Sunni.
My opinion is that Muhammad’s strategy was simply to repackage their pagan worship into a monotheistic religion. To state his goal was a success is an understatement. Islam is now the fastest growing religion in the world. But, why? From Prophecy 20/20, “There was a time before the discovery of oil in the Middle East that Islam could be dismissed as trying to impose 7th century Arabia on the ignorant and disenfranchised.” (Missler 144)
When Islam was broke without oil, the Arabians could only be guilty of spreading ancient religion on those that no one cared about. However, now that the Arabs are in charge of world oil revenues, and also the number one supplier of heroin worldwide, Islam can no longer be ignored.
Suddenly, now people are scrambling to become educated about the Islamist's origins, plans and methods of militants whose stated goals remains dedicated to the destruction of both Israel and America. From an article I wrote for Examiner.com in November 2011, “Differences between Christianity and Islam”, the research for which I completed for a teaching (sermon) I had given in October 2010, I documented there were efforts already underway to bring the Islamic religion into the Christian Church. I then, and now, would like Christians to know that the Islamic theology belief system is totally incompatible with the Bible and the God we serve.
The Islamic Theology Belief System
The separation of the church and state, which is an unwritten rule in universities and the halls of government in the United States, is not in the Islamic belief system. Further, the Islamist have clear guidelines on the objectives to help them in accomplishing one of their top priorities; one world takeover.
The Islamist terrorist have 3 known goals as stated in “Jerusalem Countdown” that have not changed in the last 30 years:
1) Drive all Westerners and Jews out of the Middle East
2) Kill all Christians and Jews
3) Establish an Islamic government and religion worldwide.
The Islamic theology belief system, includes, but not limited to, many of the items that follow:
1. Any non-Muslims are the enemy of Islam
2. Each non-Muslim in the world must submit to Islam, or face annihilation.
3. Any country that has ever been under Islamic law must be brought back.
4. If the Muslim population is in the majority, then they must be the government.
5. The Jews are only temporary residents of Jerusalem and Israel.
6. There can be a temporary peace, up to seven years, between Islam and others, so Islam can regroup and rearm, and there is no peace ever with infidels.
7. There can be no concessions to non-Muslims; any concessions by non-Muslims (i.e., Israel, the United States, etc.), becomes a sign of weakness. This is a pointer to a Muslim of success.
8. Islamists are in a holy war (Jihad) until Judgment Day.
9. Non-Muslims cannot use the word Allah, even if that word describes God Almighty. (Hagee 1-2)
The Quran and Inclusion Theology
The Muslims belief is that Christians and Jews have distorted the Scriptures. Muhammad believed the Gnostic Gospels and the Apocrypha to be full of errors. What happened next is Muhammad falls asleep in a cave and awakens thinking Gabriel may have given him the Quran to replace the Bible. He goes home confused and tells his wife about the experience.
She asks him if he has been smoking poppy seed again. However, he insists that what he has told her is so. She knows tribal warfare and thinks that this just might work at unifying them. Who is going to write the book, without the ability to read or write? Muhammad says that he will need one of his slaves to write it down for him before he dies.
He does not do this. Thus, we have the Quran created by someone else much later, without any written notes from Muhammad. Improbably, perhaps not. I have just written a short piece on Religious Diversity in a Religions of the World one essay. Some of the denominations in America have concluded the way to handle the Islamic threat is to provide the Quran with the Bible in the back of a pew in Christian churches.
Further, some churches have even allowed the Quran to be read in portions of their services. One confirmation of this is in an article, On June 26th, 2011, the National Cathedral in Washington D.C. and roughly 50 other churches in 26 U.S. states will publicly read from the Quran during their Sunday worship services. This is all part of an interfaith project being promoted by the Interfaith Alliance and Human Rights First.
The theme of this Sunday is “Faith Shared: Uniting in Prayer and Understanding”, and the goal is apparently to show how much Christian churches in the United States respect Islam. (Snyder “Another Step Closer”)
As I have already stated, Inclusion Theology as practiced, is not in the Word of God. Certainly, the reading of the Quran in a professed Christian church is a heresy. In the Revelation of Jesus Christ, chapter 22, the penalty for any other theology writer is a strong warning,
For I testify to everyone who hears the words of the prophecy of this book: If anyone adds to this things, God will add to him the plagues that are written in this book; and if anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part from the Book of Life, from the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book. (NKJV Revelation 22.18-19)
When one tries to integrate the Quran and the Word of God it does not work because the doctrines are antithetical. The Quran speaks of a god that is capricious and unknowable. The Bible tells of the God who loves His body of believers and wants to bless them and be a part of every decision they make. Muhammad could not be sure of what he had dreamed until told to remember by his wife.
I suspect, but cannot document at this time, the attempt by Muhammad at a new religion was an impressive effort to unite the often warring tribes of Arabia rather than a visit by Gabriel. It is an attempt at an understatement to say that the Quran is a heresy. The Word of God is sixty-six books written by over 40 authors over a period of several thousand years. The god of the Quran is not the God of the Bible. I make this statement without noting any of the many differences between the Quran and the Word of God. To state it with some discretion, I’m convinced that the Quran is leading some 1.5 billion adherents to an eternity without God.
I in no way mean to imply that rank and file Muslims are guilty of the extremism which characterizes the terrorist leadership. However, one must learn how it all began; the nature, and schema of Islam. I also think that the Christian churches who are including the Quran in their services are just following politically correct thinking. However, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob did not get involved with the development or implementation of political correctness, which actively rejects the Word of God at every opportunity.
Prior to the life of Muhammad, Jews and Arabs coexisted peacefully on the Arabian Peninsula. Mohammed and his contemporaries created a massive refugee issues when they banned Jews from Arabia, some 850,000 Arab Jews. Many of these were the descendants of the over 1,000,000 Jews who were captive in Babylonia under Nebuchadnezzar, and well off under Cyrus. When given the option of going back to the rebuild the Temple and Jerusalem, a large majority chose to stay in Babylon, where they had their kinfolk, businesses and had lived for 70 years.
History tells the story of how Muhammad and his associates handled the Jewish refugees after they rejected his bid to become Islamist. Among the Jews that lived in Jericho during the seventh century were refugees from Muhammad’s bloody massacre of two Arabian Jewish tribes. The Jews of Khaibar had lived peacefully among their Arab neighbors for hundreds of years until the so-called prophet Muhammad “visited upon his beaten enemy inhuman atrocities,” massacring Jewish men, women, and children.
The Jews of Khaibar “had prided themselves on the purity of their family life; now their women and daughters (the ones spared execution) were distributed among and carried away by the conquerors. (Zvi 44-45)
With the rise of Islam, there has been a long legacy of hate. Starting with the first assault on the American embassy in Tehran in the fall of 1979, which led to the snatching of American hostages, a crisis which lasted 444 days of inaction, the Islamist have a rich history of death and destruction.
The legacy continued with the murder of American diplomats and military personnel in Europe and North Africa. Hijackings were more common in the 70’s and 80’s before governments worldwide began enforcing stricter luggage and gear restrictions on passengers post 9/11.
Next came the wars of Afghanistan, Palestine, Lebanon and Iraq. The attack on Americans in New York, Washington and another thwarted attempt on perhaps Chicago. The latest round of Islamist imperialism is the attack on innocent onlookers at the Boston Marathon by two Russian immigrant Islamist who lived in nearby Cambridge. Just since the 1st of January 2013, 282 Christians killed as a result of Islamist trying to walk in the shadow of Muhammad’s footsteps and live by the words of the Quran.
According to a New York Times article, the 9/11 attack has amassed a $3.3 trillion dollar price tag. This does not include the invasion of privacy and relinquishing of fundamental freedoms in the name of irrational national security. (Carter and Cox “9/11 Tally: $3.3 trillion)
It is appropriate here to give a brief explanation of the divisions in Islam. The two sectarian groups of Islam are the Sunnis and Shiites. Within the sect of Sunnis those that adhere to the strictest group, the Wahhabis, followers of the fundamental teachings of Muhammad ibin Abdul Wahhab (1703-1791). What is significant about this? Eighty percent of the Muslim clergy of the 3,000 plus mosques in America are loyal Wahhabi.
The Myths of Islam
Myth one: “Islam is a religion of peace”. Nothing can be further from the truth. I have now read the Quran, and can say without a doubt it is a warrior code that has an intention to take over the world. The method of that conquest is by the sword; which is whatever technology is available for use in the conquest. More than one hundred verses of the Quran promote the use of force to disperse Islam.
From the Quran, Allah commands Muslims, “Then, when the sacred months have passed, slay the idolaters wherever ye find them, and take them [captive], and besiege them, and prepare for them each ambush.” (The Holy Quran Sura 9.5) This is the official Islam which cannot and will not change without acknowledging that Muhammad was a false prophet.
Myth two: “Islam is a religion of love”. Not hardly. After reading the Quran, I can say definitively that there is not one verse in the entire book that commands anyone to love anything. In stark contrast to this, Jesus Christ summarized the entire Bible in just two verses, “You shall love the Lord you God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all strength.” (Deuteronomy 6.5), and “You shall love your neighbor as yourself.” (Leviticus 19.18)
Myth three: “Allah is the same as the God of the Old Testament”. Nothing could be further from the truth. Allah’s character is uncertain, might do anything and is unreliable. The God of the Bible delights in making and keeping His promises. Islamist state that Allah is the Arabic name for God. Nothing could be further from the truth. It is quite the correct name for the moon god. To that end, the crescent moon adorns mosques throughout the world.
Myth four is “The Quran is compatible with the Bible”. Absolutely false. Quran is not compatible with the Bible, but a book of ancient sayings, fables and half-truths that are often contradictory. For example, the Christian and the Jew recognized enemies of Islam, in the Quran called “People of the Book”. This is unquestionably one name I think that we have earned and can be proud to be called.
Myth five is “Islam venerated Jesus Christ”. This is a totally false claim. In Sura 10.68-70, it is clear what Muhammad believed about those who believed in Jesus Christ: Allah hath taken [unto Him] a son - Glorified be He! He hath no needs! His is all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. Ye have no warrant for this. Tell ye concerning Allah that which ye know not? Say: Verily those who invent a lie concerning Allah will not succeed. This world's portion [will be theirs], then unto us is their return. Then we make them taste a dreadful doom because they used to disbelieve.
Here is another about Jesus Christ that all Islamist value because it is in their book: Sura 4:171 states: “O People of the Book! Commit no excesses in your religion: Nor say of Allah aught but the truth. Christ Jesus the son of Mary was (no more than) an apostle of Allah, and His Word, which He bestowed on Mary, and a spirit proceeding from Him: so believe in Allah and His apostles. Say not “Trinity” desist: it will be better for you: for Allah is one Allah. Glory be to Him: (far exalted is He) above having a son. To Him belong all things in the heavens and on earth. And enough is Allah as a Disposer of affairs.”
Myth 6: “Abraham is the Father of Arabs, not the Jews”. This is clearly a case of Arab racism that they are the descendants of Abraham through his son Ishmael. The McClinton and Strong Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological, and Literature tells about the misconception: There is a prevalent notion that the Arabs, both of the south and north, are descendants from Ishmael; and the passage in Genesis 16.11-16 is often cited as if it were a prediction of that national independence which, upon the whole, the Arabs have maintained more than any other people.
But this supposition (in as far as the true meaning of the text quoted) is founded on a misconception of the original Hebrew. These prophecies found their accomplishment in the fact of the sons of Ishmael being located, generally speaking, to the east of the other descendants of Abraham whether by Sara or by Keturah. But the idea of the southern Arabs being of the posterity of Ismael is entirely without foundation, and seems to have originated in the tradition invented by Arab vanity that they, as well as the Jews, are of the seed of Abraham, a vanity which, besides disfiguring and falsifying the whole history of the patriarch and his son Ishmael, has transferred the scene of it from Palestine to Mecca. The vast tracts of country known to us under the name of Arabia gradually became peopled by a variety of tribes of different lineage. (McClintock and Strong, I: 339)
There are many other discrepancies, errors and inconsistencies in the Quran, but they all start with these.
The Ethics of Islam
To examine the ethics of Islam one only has to go to an incident that happened in their history, a peace treaty signed between Muhammad and his own Quaraish tribe. Two years after signing an agreement between the two parties, after Muhammad had time to regroup and become strong, he violated the covenant with his own people and wiped out every man, woman and child. Islamist celebrate this ancient event to this present time wherever Islam is practiced. The Western mind can barely comprehend the ethics of a religion that advocates advancing the cause of Islam with murder, lies and deceit.
This can explain why appeasement, often employed by the US government and others in their dealings with Islam, is a clear indication to the Islamist of a sign of weakness. This encourages more outlandish demands, which has been the constant effect over time as the Islamist negotiates with the West and Israel. The United Nations, United States, Britain and Germany cannot truly believe that giving the Palestinian’s statehood will bring peace to the Middle East. One only has to evaluate the Gaza Strip to ensure that the giving of land has no effect on peace. Since the Israeli’s withdrew from the Gaza strip in 2005, there have been 12,800 rockets fired into Israel by Hamas resulting in 44 deaths and 1,687 injuries from 2006 through the end of 2011. ("Rocket Attacks on Israel from Gaza”)
We regrettably think of terrorist as fanatics like the news media often characterizes them. I rather believe they are committed, fundamentalist Muslims who are zealously trying to understand the false prophet Muhammad and the principles of hate found in the Quran. When God declared war against Satan in Genesis 3.15 there were two distinct seeds revealed. The verse states, “I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her seed; He shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise His heel.” This is an early hint of the false Christ of Revelation. It is provocative that God announces an enmity between the serpent and the woman, and between the two seeds. It becomes easier, in light of this, to identify the distinctive enmity between Islam and women.
The PLO is not as strong as it once was when Yasser Arafat was the leader of the PLO. Lest we forget, from the book “The PLO Connection”, the PLO still holds the record for the largest hijacking, tied with the 9/11 hijackers with four, the greatest number of hostages held at one time (300), and the greatest number shot at an airport, the largest extortion collected, and the greatest selection of targets assaulted. Yasser ordered schoolchildren murdered in Avivim, Ma’alot and Antwerp; the murder of eleven Jewish athletes in Munich; and the execution of synagogue worshippers in Istanbul. He ordered the killing of a Jewish boy and his pregnant mother in Alfei Menashe, and the execution of a mother and her children on a bus. (Laffin 18).
Keep in mind, Yasser Arafat, with the blood of thousands of innocents all over his hands, received the Nobel Peace Prize which President Clinton celebrated on the Whitehouse lawn in a forced handshake with both leaders, Clinton and Yitzhak Rabin, which he had sworn to destroy. Obviously, the Islam issue is not just a Middle Eastern issue, rather a world issue that will continue to be a significantly bigger part of the coming new world order.
Most Christians at this point at least know of the Quran. However, what a lot of people do not know who have not studied the Islamic religion is that Islam has other sacred writings that Islamist say are inspired like the Quran. The other Islamic holy book is the Hadith.
The Hadith is a collection of ancient traditions recording the words and deeds of Muhammad purportedly from his wives, family members, friends and Muslim leaders which cannot be found in the Quran. Dr. Muhammad Hamidullah states, “The custodian and repository of the original teachings of Islam are found above all in the Quran and Hadith.” He adds, “The Quran and the Hadith are the basis of all Islamic law.” (Hamidullah 163, 250)
The Christian Apologetics and Research Ministry (CARM) had the following information on the Hadith:
A saying in the Hadith is called a sunnah. These sunnah were transmitted by word of mouth down through the centuries having been memorized first by Muhammad's companions and then later by subsequent Muslims. Therefore, the Hadith is the written record of the oral traditions, passed down from Muslim to Muslim, of what Mohammed was supposed to have said and done. The Qur'an is considered to be the absolute and infallible word of Allah. The Hadith, however, though the words of the inspired prophet Muhammad, are not necessarily infallible. The oldest collection to date dates from the 9th century. The Hadith fall into two categories, "Hadith qudsi (sacred Hadith) in which God Himself is speaking in, as it were, a complementary revelation through the Prophet, and hadith sharif (noble Hadith), the Prophet's own acts and utterances." The most famous and universally accepted among the six collections of Hadith are those of Sahih Al-Bukhari (d. 870) -- which are used in the Interesting Quotes from the Hadith section -- and Abu al-Hajjaj (d. 875), which is usually called “Muslim." The Hadith are important because they elucidate many areas not covered by - or were not very clear in - the Qur'an. The Hadith is appealed to in legal decisions and consulted in debate among many Muslims. There is debate among western scholars as to the historicity and accuracy of the Hadith. Some believe additions were made to it to serve political and theological purposes of various Muslim leaders. Many Muslims will disagree and some even claim all the Hadith are inspired and accurate. This is quite debatable. (Slick “The Hadith”)
The issue I have with the Hadith is there would have had to be some written record of his sayings from his wives, family members and friends who passed. The Hadith states, Muhammad did not leave a collection of his thoughts or select a successor before his death. After Muhammad’s death, “the Quran was scattered on palm leaves, rocks, bones, etc.” (Bukhari and Khan, vol. 6 509)
As a matter of record, the Hadith confirms that the Quran, put together by the Caliph Hadrat Uthman (577 – 20 June 656), some years after Muhammad died. (Bukhari and Khan, vol. 4 709) My study in the Hadith is insufficient by the sheer volume of “The Translation of the meaning of Sahih Al-Bukhari”, written by Dr. Mushin Khan in 9 volumes. Suffice it to say that Muhammad practiced some highly unusual habits of poor self-control, had some personal habits and morals that we would suggest might be found to be immoral today, and egotistical far beyond some of the glaring examples of today.
What we do know from Muslim history is that he acted against both the Hadith and the Quran. Muhammad had 16 wives, and 2 other slave concubines, and at least 4 other women who were not wives, slaves or his concubines that had sexual relations with him. Aesha, one of his 16 wives, reportedly only 8 or 9 years old when Muhammad took her to his bed. This bizarre practice was apparently a fairly common one in Arabia at the time. This, of course, is seriously distressing to Westerners. One expert says, “While in Islamic countries an eight or nine year old girl can be given in marriage to an adult male.” (Morey 86)
This is something that most scholars fly over to spare the feelings of Muslims. As my mother used to say, “If the shoe fits, wear it.” History about Muhammad is what it is, and we can say with certainty that he was quite unlike the Lord Jesus Christ in every respect. History cannot be rewritten to ignore the fact that Muhammad today would be considered a pedophile. Just from my brief research into the Quran and Hadith, the writers Muhammad and Uthman, and the social morays of Muslim values of their age would hardly be recognizable to anyone today in America or Arabia today.
To summarize what we learned in this study, Islam is not as young a belief system as first thought. It can be traced back to the time of Abraham in Ur when the moon god belief was widespread, first codified by Nimrod, who was the mastermind in the origin of Christmas, a great grandson of Noah; and Semiramis, also known as Ishtar and Isis, his wife. The Creation Studies Institute lends some solidity to this idea:
Religious claims often fall before the results of hard sciences such as archaeology. We can endlessly speculate about the past or go and dig it up and see what the evidence reveals. This is the only way to find out the truth concerning the origins of Allah. The hard evidence demonstrates that the god Allah was a pagan deity. In fact, he was the Moon-god who was married to the sun goddess and the stars were his daughters. (Rowitt “The moon god or Allah?”)
Islam promotes the worship of a pagan deity, started suspiciously after Muhammad read the Gnostic Gospels and the Apocrypha, fell asleep in a cave, woke up hours later thinking Gabriel had given him a new bible filled with rules and regulations codified tribal rules he, his father and grandfather all knew, etc.. I do not want to be irreverent, but if one stands up for the Gospel as it should be, one will automatically be labeled an Islamophobic. I cannot help but wonder if the 11,267 Christians who died during 2012 at the hands of Islamist, would make them Christianophobia. (Gabbay “More Than 11,000 Died”)
One thing is for sure God had nothing to do with Islamist guilty in the killing of Christians. I in no way advocate the killing of Islamist anywhere in the world; quite to the contrary I would like to see each and every one of them come to the saving grace of the Lord Jesus Christ. How is it that American Christians seem indifferent to the extreme oppression that most of the rest of the world has been enduring for 1,967 years? The time to stand up for the Lord Jesus Christ may be coming sooner than we think.
We hear in the news, who only tell us what we want to hear that the number of persons caring out the terrorism is a small minority. However, if one is an Islamist it is one's duty to obey Allah and his words in the Quran. Sura 9.73 states, "Strive hard against the unbelievers and the hypocrites and be unyielding to them; and their abode is hell, and evil is their destination." This verse and there are many like it, does not sound safe when it comes to Islamist relationships with Christians and Jews, now does it? Dropping all pretenses, Jesus died for a Muslim’s sins as well as mine. God loves them just the way they are, but gives each one of them free will to choose whether they believe His path to salvation, or not.
Jesus Christ said in John 14.6, “I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.” Jesus Christ, who is standing next to God, constantly mentioning the prayers of the saints to the creator; God. Jesus Christ invalidates any approach to God except through Him. Anyone trying to get to God through any other means, simply does not have a path. Just as computers that are fully functional have no way to the internet without a wireless modem or ethernet card, honest people who otherwise are decent and altruistic, but do not believe in Jesus Christ, do not have a way to God.
To sum up my thoughts on Religions of the Word One and Two: It is advantageous for each of us that we know the basic beliefs of the sinners who are practicing many religious beliefs. It creates an opportunity for dialogue that potentially opens the door for sharing the Gospel with those that are a lot like each of us before we stood born again. Dead and lost in sin with an eternal soul and body, predestined to spend eternity in hell. Compassion for others should increase in each of us because we came from the same state of sin. Never forgetting that God sent someone who had compassion for us when we had no hope.
Remember the words of the Lord Jesus Christ, “Therefore everyone who confesses Me before men, I will also confess him before My Father who is in Heaven. But whoever denies Me before men, I will also deny him before My Father who is in heaven." (Matthew 10.32-33) The few insults, innuendos and political correct slurs we encounter are nothing when compared to persecutions, threats, and death that many of the Christian forefathers endured. The time is coming for each of us, and right around the bend. Paul, or whoever wrote Hebrews, said it best, Therefore we also, since we are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which so easily ensnares us, and let us run with endurance the race that is set before us, looking unto Jesus, the author and finisher of our faith, who for the joy that was set before Him endured the cross, despising the shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God. (Hebrews 12.1-2)
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